1900s Honzo Zufu – MEDICINAL PLANTS ILLUSTRATED – MUSHROOMS – Tsunemasa Iwasaki

Japanese Mushrooms
Medicinal Plants
From the Colossal Botanical Treatise
“Honzo Zufu”
By Iwasaki Tsunemasa
Spectacular Colour Illustrations
Early 1900s

Iwasaki Tsunemasa (Kan-en)
Title: Honzo Zufu [Illustrated Manual of Medicinal Plants / Iconographia Plantarum]Japan, early 1900s. A most pleasing and highly illustrative Japanese monograph on mushrooms, being a copy of the work on medicinal mushrooms, from the multi-volume compendium of Iwasaki Tsunemasa titled Honzo Zufu. 8vo. 54 pages, offset colour-printed facsimile. Traditional karitoji paper binding string-stitched at spine, fukurotoji style (“bound-pocket” with folded leafs bound into spine), and opening from left to right. Ivory paper covers, title label, official red ink stamp to the first text leaf. All text is in Japanese. Volume measures approximately 17,5 x 26 cm. Very good condition, a visually striking historic work.Only six original sets of his work exist in Japan. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, also possesses a complete set of the original manuscript volumes with hand-coloured woodblock print illustrations; else this monumental work is exceedingly scarce.

Honzo Zufu or “Illustrated Manual of Medicinal Plants” is the work of Tsunemasa Iwasaki (1786-1842), a Japanese botanist, zoologist and entomologist who compiled and published the valuable compendium in 93 volumes between 1830 and 1844. Honzo Zufu comprises illustrations and descriptions of some 2,920 plants, chiefly of Japanese origin. A classic work of botanical classification, begun in woodcut, then continued in manuscript form during the mid-19th century, it was finally edited by Shirai and published in final form, printed by colour woodblock with descriptions of species in Japanese, and accompanied by a Japanese-Latin index, in 1920-22.In 1828 the first volumes of Honzo Zufu were printed, with uncolored woodcut prints. Beginning in 1829, he issued manuscript volumes of a vastly expanded work under the same title, beautifully illustrated by watercolour paintings. Tsunemasa Iwasaki continued to work diligently, printing and distributing new volumes at the rate of about four volumes per year until the work was finished. A complete set is said to have been presented and dedicated to the Shogun in 1844, signaling its completion on a most honourable manner.Iwasaki was better known as Kan-en, his sobriquet which translates literally to “irrigation of a garden for plants”. He was a samurai in the service of the Tokugawa Shogunate, a born naturalist, and had access to about 150 illustrated volumes of Japanese botanical books. In 1826 at Edo, he had also become acquainted with the German physician and botanist Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (1796-1866) who achieved prominence by his studies of Japanese flora and fauna and the introduction of Western medicine in Japan. He was the father of the first female Japanese doctor educated in Western medicine, Kusumoto Ine.

Before embarking on what would become nothing short of a Japanese botanical encyclopaedia, Iwasaki had written an 8-volume commentary on “Kyuko Honzo” which was finished in 1817, but was never published. Following that, he produced an excellent work on plant propagation, which alone would place him among the leaders in the horticultural history of Japan.Iwasaki Tsunemasa (Kan-en) also wrote:

   •    Buko-sanbutsu-shi a work on the natural history of the Edo district including botany zoology and entomology as lists.

   •    Honzo Sen’yo (Essentials to the study of plants and animals). Unpublished. Two volumes, includes insects and gives some Dutch names. Some editions include the Binomial nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.

   •    Somoku-sodategusa (Cultivation of Flowering Plants). Two volumes of woodcut illustrations (1818). Includes 13 Ukiyo-e of insects which cause plant damage. One was Papilio xuthus which fed on fragrant citrus. He described the larva with its osmeterium.

1880 Albumen Photographs – VICTORIAN THEATRE – Two Housemaids – Social Comedy

Albumen Photographs
Nineteenth Century Theatre
Comedy of Two Housemaids
circa 1880

England, circa 1880. Seven (7) albumen photographs of a Victorian comedic theatrical production, from the era of prolific literature and theatre, this play evidently highlighting social class issues through the lens of two housemaids. Photographs measure approximately 10,5 x 13,5 cm. Some creasing, otherwise in very good condition, vibrant images from a “cup and saucer drama”.Theatre and literature flourished during the Victorian era. Social plays, then known as “cup and saucer dramas”, set in the characters’ living rooms, became very popular. Political reforms had come into practice, which led to the openness of theatre and literature, and many new establishments were built, including entertaining venues and theatre schools. It was a period which brought prosperity to the middle class of England, and simultaneously started to challenge the old hierarchical order of the country. Theatres openly displayed and played dramas relating to social problems. Pantomime, Vaudeville, melodramas and light operas (such as those written by Gilbert and Sullivan) were popular. The works of dramatists George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde were widely respected. Technological breakthroughs of the industrial revolution also had an impact on theatre in the form of electric lighting and the use of machinery to create visual and audio spectacles.

The playwright’s comedy presents an entertaining drama of two Victorian house maids or servants performing their duties, while surely poking fun at the mundane and painstaking tasks. The characters seem to be opposite in personality, one with a more serious disposition earnestly working along, the other more light-hearted and a bit of a prankster. In two scenes, the entertainer type is motioning the thought of pouring water or perfume over her unsuspecting partner. The photographs seem to suggest that this would be a musical play.This set of photographs appear to be from the making of promotional material prior to the release of the live theatrical performance, evident by the varied set elements within what is obviously the same scene. Possibly captured during rehearsals, four images show the two women scrubbing the wood floor of a home. In two of these images, a side table covered with a cloth and holding delicate porcelaine decorations from abroad, stands behind the ladies to the left, and a screen is visible in the background to their right. In the other two images, there is no table and no screen, however one can see chair legs to the right of them.The women hand-scrubbing floors with a brush and a wet rag and bucket of soapy water, are in the home of an affluent individual who has evidently travelled to the “Far East”. This is apparent by the silk wall drapery bearing a Chinese motif of three traditionally dressed men and the ever-symbolic tiger.Set with table and screen in background:Set without furniture in background:Using the screen to create a different scene:In this scene, the stage entrance is visible on the right:
1880s women’s dress featured tightly fitting bodices with very narrow sleeves and high necklines, often trimmed at the wrists with white frills or lace. At the beginning of the decade the emphasis was at the back of the skirt, featuring ruching, flouncing, and embellishments such as bows and thick, rich fabrics and trims. The middle of the decade saw a brief revival of the bustle, which was so exaggerated that the derriere protruded horizontally from the small of the back. By the end of the decade the bustle disappeared. Hair was worn in tight, close curls on the top of the head. Hats and caps were correspondingly small and neat, to fit on top of the hairstyle.
By the last quarter of the 19th century, Hong Kong had developed as a British Crown Colony. The 1880s and 1890s were the heyday of colonialism in Asia. During this period, Hong Kong became an increasingly popular destination for western travelers in Asia. One of the key developments of the 1890s was the construction of the Peak Tramway, an inclined-rail carrier that provided easy access to the top of Victoria Peak, the hill that dominates Hong Kong Island.

1928 – THREE SIGNATURES of HARDY AMIES – Royal Courturier to Queen Elizabeth

Three Autographs of Hardy Amies
In Volumes From His Personal Library
With Bookplate and Signature

Germany, 1928-1933. Three (3) original signatures of Hardy Amies, the couturier for Queen Elizabeth for some thirty-nine years, contained in three books from his personal library, and each also containing his bookplate. 8vo. Three volumes each signed and dated by Amies to front endpaper, very slight wear to boards, otherwise in Very Good condition, signed on crisp, clean leafs.

Sir Edwin Hardy Amies, KCVO (1909-2003), was a British fashion designer, best known for being the dress designer for HM Queen Elizabeth II for thirty-nine years. In the 1930s Amies rose to become one of Britain’s leading couturiers and his salon was one of the few to rival the great dress houses of Paris. After a successful pre-war career as a designer in other people’s fashion houses, Amies opened his own establishment at 14 Savile Row in 1946. In 1950 Amies made several outfits for Elizabeth’s royal tour to Canada (then Princess Elizabeth). He received the award of a Royal Warrant as official dressmaker in 1955. One of his best known creations is the gown he designed in 1977 for Queen Elizabeth’s Silver Jubilee portrait. Knighted in 1989, Amies held the warrant until 1990, when he gave it up so that younger designers could create for the Queen. He was also the couturier for Lady Alice Egerton, who was appointed as lady-in-waiting to the young Princess Elizabeth in 1949, and who would go on to become Woman of the Bedchamber when Elizabeth became queen in 1953.

For three years he travelled and worked in France and Germany; becoming fluent in both countries’ languages. Amies worked for a customs agent and then as an English tutor in Antibes, and later in Bendorf, Germany where in 1928 he acquired one of these volumes for his library. Around the same time, another of the volumes was acquired in a village on the Mosel River. He returned to England in 1930. The third volume is signed by him in 1933 and appears to have been gifted to him by famous Austrian writer Karl Heinrich Waggerl.

1923 Wild – SHACKLETON’S LAST VOYAGE – Photographs – PRE-DATES BOOK – 

Shackleton’s Last Voyage
Substantial Account, Pre-Dating Author’s Book

Title: The Voyage of the Quest.Author: WILD, Commander Frank.
Publisher: London: Royal Geographical Society, 1923.   Pre-Dates Book
Item is in ORIGINAL Condition, With Blue Wrappers – As Issued, Complete with All the Ads!!!Notes & Condition: This is the official report to the RGS by Commander Wild, read at the evening meeting of November 13th 1922, which preceded the release of his book, ‘Shackleton’s Last Voyage’. Vividly photographic illustrations from the expedition show Shackleton’s gravesite and the memorial cairn, the Prince Olaf and Grytviken Whaling Stations, South Georgia views, the ‘Quest’, and Shackelton’s team. The lure of Antarctica was too strong for Shackleton to resist, so he started his fourth and final trip in the ill suited ‘Quest’ in 1921, with wildly ambitious objectives. The final adventure and perilous Antarctic voyage of the most revered Arctic explorers is laid out with illuminating detail and insight, recounting preparations and planned route, to the ship’s crew, the whaling industry, uncharted passages, majestic icebergs and seal habits. Also includes section by Commander F. A. Worsley on the expedition’s hydrographic work, and a section on geological work by Vibert Douglas.When Shackleton died suddenly in South Georgia, Wild published a book in 1923 from the Official Journal and Private Diary kept by Dr. A. H. Macklin: “Shackleton’s Last Voyage: The Story of the Quest“. The author reproduced the last photographs of Shackleton to have been taken.Shackleton’s Last Voyage – This Substantial Primary Reveal Precedes the Author’s Book!Known affectionately as “the Boss” by the members of his expeditions, Sir Ernest Shackleton had an uncanny ability to take advantage of his luck without ever taking it for granted. Though he engaged in some of the most dangerous exploits of modern exploration and had his share of bad luck, his work left no one dead or injured – a remarkable achievement in the history of British Polar Exploration. With unabashed charm, imagination, and his trademark lilting Irish brogue he soon captivated the hearts and fueled the imagination of many who sought to explore the unknown. He left for his last voyage onboard the Quest and died shortly after arrival in South Georgia – Antarctica.
The Voyage of the Quest (Shackleton-Rowett Expedition 1921-22): The ‘Quest’ was refitted at Hays Wharf and on September 17, 1921, from St. Katharine’s Dock, under Tower Bridge, Shackleton finally sailed. The ‘Quest’ had been intended for the Arctic expedition and was not suited for a long, trans-oceanic journey. She lumbered heavily in the trade winds, her engines too weak. Out at sea her boiler was found to be cracked. She needed repairs at every port of call. Against all this, Shackleton seemed to fight as he had always fought. It was late December and they were being tossed about in the South Atlantic on their way to South Georgia. On board ‘Quest’, Shackleton was constantly ill. His broad face was pale and pinched. At Rio de Janeiro, Shackleton had a massive heart attack but, as usual, refused to be examined. Macklin knew he was suffering from heart disease. Finally, on January 4, 1922, the ‘Quest’ came within view of South Georgia. The Quest anchored outside the whaling station of Grytviken; it had been eight years since Shackleton had sailed up the same fjord in ‘Endurance’ on his way to the Weddell Sea. Surprisingly, many of the same old faces were there. Fridthjof Jacobsen was still station manager. He came out in a boat and took Shackleton ashore. Macklin was not surprised when in the early hours he was called to Shackleton, and found him in the midst of another heart attack. A few minutes later, in the wee hours of January 5, 1922, Shackleton was dead. Shackleton’s body was to be sent back to England for burial. With it went Hussey, who had no heart for the expedition now that his leader was dead. When Emily heard what had happened, she decided that her husband should be buried on South Georgia. Hussey turned around and brought the body back to South Georgia. There, on March 5, he was laid to rest in the Norwegian cemetery, along with the whalers amongst whom he had felt at home.

36 pages. Plus sketch maps and several photographic illustrations. Original condition with blue wrappers, titles to front, and containing all the ads. This is a complete issue, seldom found in such good and original condition.

1960s Document Archive – PETER WEISS – LITERATURE THEATRE FILM – NYC Broadway

Literature – Theatre – Film
Works of Peter Ulrich Weiss

Document Archive
From New York City’s
Miss Joan Daves

Renowned Female Literary Agent
Who Represented
Six Nobel Laureates
Including Martin Luther King, Jr.

New York City, Frankfurt, Stockholm, etc., 1961-1966. Substantial archive of documents concerning the publication and production of several notable literary works and theatrical plays by Peter Ulrich Weiss, including correspondence, draft agreements, contracts signed with leading publishers and producers, as well as some programmes and peer reviews, being the working files of his New York agent, Joan Daves. Together with 3 LP record box sets of the first and complete Broadway original cast music recording for the Marat/Sade play. Octavo and Folio documents and letters, ranging in size and number of pages, some signed in the original. Most are in English; some are in German; the lot neatly contained in four ring binders. The vast majority of the documents date to the 1960s, with a scant few being later including a letter regarding a special television production in 1979 with NBC. Occasional wear to extremities, otherwise in very good condition, beautifully preserved, clean and bright. A generous and comprehensive archive chronicling the work and partnership of a leading literary agent in the rise of German-American publishing, and one of her notable German writers.

Provenance: From the desk of Weiss’ literary agent for the US, Joan Daves.

Joan Daves (1919-1997) was a leading literary agent with her own agency in New York, whose client list boasts six Nobel Prize winners including Martin Luther King, Jr. Daves had a profound effect on the very existence of German literature in America. Born Liselotte Davidson in Berlin, she escaped Nazi Germany by fleeing to Paris and England before emigrating to the United States in 1940. Her agency, established in 1948, handled the original works of several American authors. She handled Martin Luther King, Jr.’s literary property from 1957 until her death. Of great emphasis with her firm was the representation of several major German publishers, such as Suhrkamp, Piper, S. Fischer Verlag and others. It was the prime time of German writers such as Peter Weiss, Uwe Johnson, Max Frisch, Heinar Kipphardt, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, and Hermann Hesse.

In the mid-1960s, communication with German publishers was quite different from today. A shipment of galleys was prepared with a ‘by sea mail’ label. When the New York Times printed the date and time the next ship would leave the harbor, delivery of the parcels of documents to that specific ship was requested.

Peter Ulrich Weiss (1916-1982) was a German author, playwright, and experimental filmmaker, who gained celebrity fame on Broadway in the 1960s. He is particularly known for his plays “Marat/Sade” of 1963/65 which is largely represented in the present archive and which was enormously successful, for “The Investigation” of 1965, and for his later novel “The Aesthetics of Resistance” (1971-81). In the 1960s Weiss also embraced and promoted politically controversial groups, standing for revolutionary Cuba, standing against US intervention in Vietnam, and joining Sweden’s eurocommunist party.

Peter Ulrich Weiss earned his reputation in the post-war German literary world as the proponent of an avant-garde, meticulously descriptive writing, as an exponent of autobiographical prose, and also as a politically engaged dramatist.

In an era of heightened creativity, irreverence and extravagance in the music and literature, especially among youths. Weiss, although already in his fifties, gained international success with Marat/Sade, the American production of which was awarded a Tony Award and its subsequent film adaptation directed by Peter Brook. His Auschwitz Oratorium (The Investigation), served to broaden the debates over the so-called Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit (formerly called Vergangenheitsbewältigung ) or “politics of history.”

In the 1960s Weiss became increasingly radical and publicly spoken in his political convictions. Weiss’ magnum opus was The Aesthetics of Resistance, which has been called the most important German-language work of the 70s and 80s.

Following are some of Weiss’ career highlights and awards, pertaining to and/or related to his works which are discussed in the present documents:

  •   In 1959 he began working on Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking, also known as Farewell to the Parents). The prestigious Suhrkamp Publishing House becomes Weiss’ publisher for all of his works, following the success of publishing his “Shadow of the Coachman’s Body”.

  •   In 1960 Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking) was published.

  •   In 1961 Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point) was published.

  •   In 1962 Das Gespräch der drei Gehenden (The Conversation of Three Wanderers) was published.

  •   In 1963 he is awarded the Charles Veillon prize, by the city of Stockholm, for his Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point).

  •   In 1964 his play Marat/Sade premiered at Schillertheater in West Berlin, and from that date Weiss is considered as one of the most important post-war European playwrights. Being enormously popular, that same year the play was translated into English by Geoffrey Skelton, with lyric adaptation by Adrian Mitchell.

  •   In 1965, British director Peter Brook staged Marat/Sade at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in London. Also in 1965, Weiss’ play about Auschwitz titled Die Ermittlung (The Investigation) was premiered simultaneously on 16 stages in both West and East Germany. In this same year, Weiss was awarded the Lessing Prize, by the city of Hamburg, as well as a literature prize by the Swedish labour movement.

  •   In 1966 Marat/Sade won the American Theater Wing’s Tony award for best play. Also, a two-hour version of Weiss’ The Investigation was presented at the Ambassador Theater on Broadway in 1966, under the direction of Ulu Grosbard.

  •   In 1966 Weiss visited the United States, together with the West German writers group Gruppe 47. During a conference at Princeton University, arranged by Gruppe 47, he denounced the US war against North Vietnam, which seems to have scandalized his German colleagues more than his US hosts. This was the first time he publicly expressed his position regarding the Vietnam War, in his important speech: “I Come Out of My Hiding Place”. [After this reveal, he wrote a series of political plays, thus also becoming one of the most influential European intellectuals, and a travelling spokesman for Left politics.] Also in 1966, the East Berlin Academy of Arts awarded him with the Heinrich-Mann prize. Weiss became an active member of the Swedish Communist party in 1966. During his visit, he attended at least one of the Broadway premiers, according to a letter in the present archive.

  •   In May 1966, Weiss names Miss Joan Daves as his power of attorney.

  •   It 1967 Marat/Sade was produced as a Broadway show in the United States, and Brook’s film version, also in 1967, turned Marat/Sade into an international cultural icon. In 1967 Weiss was awarded the Carl Albert Anderson Prize, a Swedish culture prize. He participated in the anti-war Russell Tribunal in Stockholm. This year he also protested Israel’s policy after the Six-Day War.

  •   In 1968 he visited North Vietnam, and his Viet Nam Diskurs (Discourse) was premiered in Frankfurt am Main. He also and published a book about his trip. Weiss’s play, The Song of the Lusitanian Bogey, was performed in New York in 1968, as the first production of the new Negro Ensemble Company. It was an indictment of Portuguese policies in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea.

  •   In 1982 he was posthumously awarded the Georg Büchner Prize, which is one of the two most important and prestigious literary prizes for the German language, the other being the Goethe Prize.

“The Persecution of Marat/Sade” earned Weiss critical acclaim instantly. The present archive presents a singular, step-by-step, primary source chronicle of the making of the book, the play, the music recordings, the film, and a live tour, for the American audience specifically.

Among the documents, we find plenty of correspondence and agreements, which together form a most detailed and thorough history of the English translation and publication of the book, the Broadway play, and also the first film production of Marat/Sade. Parties involved in the negotiations and final transactions include Peter Weiss himself, his agent Joan Daves, publishing firms, film directors, touring companies, attorneys, translators, and others. The extensive and ongoing discourse illustrates the magnitude, the complexities and even the politics involved in such endeavours, especially in producing such a grand affair in New York’s prime Broadway theatres.

Popularly known as “Marat/Sade,” his play became an overnight a sensation. “Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade” [The Persecution and Assassination of Jean Paul Marat As Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of Monsieur de Sade] was first performed in West Berlin in 1964. It quickly brought Weiss to fame, The following year, 1965, British director Peter Brook staged it at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in London. It 1967 Marat Sade was produced as a Broadway show, and Brook’s film version, also in 1967, turned Marat/Sade into an international cultural icon.

The story has to do with the French Revolution. Set in the historical Charenton Asylum insane asylum, constantly in danger of being overwhelmed by madness and chaos, the play explores the place of writers and intellectuals in a time of revolutionary upheaval. At its center are two very different historical figures, Jean-Paul Marat, a writer and leading intellectual of the French Revolution, and the Marquis de Sade, a writer and intellectual as well, whose attitude towards the revolution is much more ambivalent and who was egocentrically obsessed with eroticism, hedonism, and pain. [The terms sadism and sadist are derived from his name. Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and an insane asylum for some 32 years.]

In the play, Weiss draws both on Antonin Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty, and its opposite, Brecht’s theater of reason. In the words of de Sade: “Our intent in creating such dialogues as these, was to experiment with various antitheses, to oppose each to each so that we might, upon our many doubts shed some light”.

Much of the ongoing discussion of the play has focused on whether it is Marat’s or Sade’s position which prevails. Beginning with Marat/Sade, Weiss’s work increasingly attracted the attention of communist East Germany.

The archive further features the First and Complete Broadway Original Cast Recording for Marat/Sade produced in 3 LP Vinyl record sets, each present here in their original boxes, and with the original accompanying printed materials.

“The Persecution and Assassination of Jean Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of Monsieur de Sade.”

In 1964, the play was translated into English by Geoffrey Skelton, with lyric adaptation by Adrian Mitchell, and staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company. Peter Brook was Director. The cast included Ian Richardson as the herald, Clive Revill as Marat, Patrick Magee as de Sade and Glenda Jackson as Charlotte Corday. After two previews, the Broadway production opened on 27 December 1965 at the Martin Beck Theatre and ran for 145 performances. Richardson took over the role of Marat, while Magee and Jackson reprised the roles they had originated in London. In 1966, the play won the Tony Award for Best Play, and Brook was named Best Director. Additional awards went to Magee for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play, and Gunilla Palmstierna-Weiss for her Costume Design. It also won the 1966 New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for Best Play.

Recordings of the songs were made by the cast of the original Royal Shakespeare Company production and film. The first recording of the show was a three-LP set released in 1964 by Caedmon Records. This was a complete audio recording of the original Broadway production. The box sets seen here were produced in 1966. A second release of the film score was later issued on a single soundtrack album LP, produced by Caedmon/United Artists Records.

The present archive includes the following box sets:

One rare set, publisher’s item number TRS-312-M:
A complete set with three records, the 118-page book of play & music published in New York by Atheneum Books 1966, a large and beautifully illustrated 16-page insert containing biographies and play summary published by Caedman Records in 1966, 3 LP records in their original paper sleeves, and the factory inspection slip. This box contains a rare magazine of 50 pages containing the music scores of Marat/Sade (music by Richard Pealslee), published by Highgate Press Agents for Galaxy Music Corporation of New York and Galliard Limited of London, protected in a mylar wrap. All text is in English. This set in a clamshell style box with titled in gilt to spine. New and unused condition.

Two of the more common sets bearing item number TRS-312-S:
One of these is complete and includes the factory inspection slip. New and unused condition. The other lacks the book, but contains the biographical insert and the 3 records. The latter with small segment of box detached at the side, otherwise these two sets are in very good condition, text is in English.

Several of Weiss’ other works are represented here, in correspondence, agreements, translation works, reviews, and the like. These include The Tower, Lusitanian Bogey, Vietnam Discourse, Leavetaking, Vanishing Point, The Conversation of Three Wanderers.

About the above-named titles:

1949 – Der Turm (The Tower).
[A short radio play originally, and a dramatized psychoanalysis in the form of a metaphor, the work is founded on Freudian principles and illustrates a liberation process related to trauma. This works was translated into English in 1967 by Michael Benedikt and Michel Heine.]

1960 – Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking. aka Farewell to the Parents).
[Weiss’ first autobiographical narrative and one of his main works. The reason for the text was the “realization of a completely unsuccessful attempt at living together, caused by the death of his mother in December 1958 and then his father in March 1959, after which the members of a family had spent a few decades together. The narrative begins with a report on the death of the parents, which is the occasion of doing so by the narrator. From earliest youth, the narrator has felt like an outsider. Above all, the father-son relationship proves to be significant, and ultimately paralyzes the activity of the dreamy, sensitive boy who wants to become an artist. After studying at the Academy of Art, he returns to the home of his parents, who had emigrated to Sweden. Finally after two or so years, he gets a vision to leave. Leavetaking was published in English in 1966, by Calder & Boyars, from the translation of Christopher Levenson.]

1961 – Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point).
[An autobiography. In terms of content, it ties in with Weiss’ farewell narrative. Weiss traces the work of his early life as an emigrant in the years between 1940 and 1947, which were marked by the struggle for his existence as an artist. Vanishing Point, too, was published in English in 1966, by Calder & Boyars, from the translation of Christopher Levenson.]

1962 – Das Gespräch der drei Gehenden (The Conversation of Three Wanderers).
[A brilliant work of prose in modern German literature, and the first of this style of writing by Weiss, the three characters engage in a fascinating monologue, partly animated by memories, partly tormented by bizarre and disturbing visions, each feeling a disconnect to their own existence.]

1967 – Gesang vom Lusitanischen Popanz (Song of the Lusitanian Bogey)
[A play, being an indictment of Portuguese policies in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea. It was performed in New York in 1968 as the first production of the new Negro Ensemble Company.]

1968 – Notizen zum kulturellen Leben der Demokratischen Republik Viet Nam. (Notes on the Cultural Life of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.)
[This was a condemnation of American policy in Southeast Asia.]

The archive is most relevant to Weiss’s arrival and influence in America, as a leading writer and dramatist in the emergence of German-American literature. Together the documents reveal the process and politics involved in obtaining English translations, performance rights, the creation of play settings, planning a live tour, and much more.

Some of the American firms involved include the David Merrick Arts Foundation (film producer, Tony Award winner in 1968), New York City publishing house Atheneum Books established in 1959, Dramatic Publishing Company (DPC) of Chicago, Caedmon Records founded in New York in 1952 (now Caedmon Audio), James Love Productions which was producing Hasboro’s toy commercial in this period, the partnership of Atlantic Monthly Press / Little Brown, the Negro Ensemble Company, and the Coconut Grove Playhouse theatre in Miami, Galaxy Music, NBC, TV, and more.

In addition to the voluminous lot of correspondence and contracts, we find occasional details of financial interest including agents’ fees, legal costs, terms for royalties and deposits paid, and a few matters concerning Weiss’ personal accounts. The archive also contains publicity and newspaper reviews, as well as some ephemeral items such as programmes.

There is much involvement between the German publishing firm Suhrkamp, literary agent Joan Daves, New York based publishers Atheneum Book, various American stage producers, film producers, directors, translators, and the like. At quick glance, we find original signatures of Siegfried Unseld, director of Suhrkamp Verlag of Frankfurt/Main, as well as that of Simon Michael Bessie, one of the two founders of Atheneum Books. [Suhrkamp Verlag is a German publishing house, established in 1950 and generally acknowledged as one of the leading European publishers of fine literature. Atheneum Books was a New York City publishing house established in 1959 by Alfred A. Knopf, Jr., Simon Michael Bessie and Hiram Haydn.]

At least five letters by Weiss, to his agent Joan Daves, are signed in the original by him, as well as one copy of a contract. Rather interesting is the signed and notarized Power of Attorney document, dated 5 May 1966, with which Weiss appoints his literary agent Miss Daves to handle his affairs post-mortem.

There are also letters to/from actor Joel Arnold, British translator Geoffrey Skelton, the International Copyright Agency of Jan Van Loewen who born in Berlin as Hans Lowenstein, was an actor and agent, and many others.

Following are some specific examples of the contents of the archive:

Two book publishing contracts between Suhrkamp Verlag of Frankfurt/Main and New York’s Atheneum Publishers, for translated works of Mr. Weiss, both being signed in the original, made in 1964 and 1965, respectively. One of this pertains to Marat/Sade. To the earliest contract is affixed a receipt voucher for $1000 advance payment.

A 1967 draft contract, between Suhrkamp Verlag and Peter Weiss himself, for the publication of Abschied von den Eltern, heavily ruled in ink and appended with a footnote concerning content that may “violate any person’s right of privacy… contains anything obscene, scandalous, libelous…” [The author, by this time, had become known for his controversial and provocative works.]

Official receipt from the Copyright Office of the United States of America, for Weiss’ book “I Come Out of My Hiding Place” with small certificate affixed to front, signed and stamped in the original. This work was written in English by Weiss himself, first delivered as a speech at Princeton University on 25 April 1966 and copyrighted for publication on May 30th.

Agreements made between 1966 and 1969 which delineate the particulars for the English translation of “Das Gesprach der drei Gehenden” as well as the royalties paid to Weiss for the publishing of four of his literary works by Delacorte Press.

As well as New York Literary Agent Miss Joan Daves, several other notable persons are represented here. Among the documents are the following:

Marat Sade Productions Ltd. letter signed by the firm’s co-director and film producer Lord Birkett, 31 May 1966, concerning a “new Sade monologue” for the upcoming film adaptation which would be released in 1967. [Lord Michael Birkett (1929-2015) was chairman of the British Film Academy in the 1960s and served at the National Theatre in the 70s.]

Typescript English translation by Ralph Manheim, one of the most acclaimed translators of the 20th century, of Weiss’ lesser known short work titled “Gegen die Gesetze der Normalitä” [Against the Laws of Normality]. [Ralph Frederick Manheim (1907-1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian.]

Letters from Alvin Deutsch, New York attorney who specialized in intellectual property matters, representing authors, composers, lyricists, theatre and literary agencies, concerning copyright as well as the Broadway tour. [He was for 30 years senior member of Linden & Deutsch (subsequently Deutsch Klagsbrun & Blasband) which merged recently with McLaughlin and Stern.]

We also find correspondence with Robert T. Gaus Associates, tour management company, in relation to negotiations with Alvin Deutsch for prime-city and secondary-city tour options.

Several letters or correspondence in regards to a “Zef Bufman Tour of Marat/Sade” between Zef Bufman’s agent, various theatre companies, attorneys, and more. [Zev Buffman is a Broadway producer and current President and CEO of Ruth Eckerd Hall in Clearwater, Florida. He has produced more than 40 Broadway shows. He partnered with Elizabeth Taylor to present her in her Broadway debut of The Little Foxes. He is credited with producing the 1967 Broadway show Marat Sade.]

The lot of documents is contained in four binders
and accompanied by three records box sets:

1928 – THREE SIGNATURES of HARDY AMIES – Royal Courturier to Queen Elizabeth

Three Autographs of Hardy Amies
In Volumes From His Personal Library
With Bookplate and Signature

Germany, 1928-1933. Three (3) original signatures of Hardy Amies, the couturier for Queen Elizabeth for some thirty-nine years, contained in three books from his personal library, and each also containing his bookplate. 8vo. Three volumes each signed and dated by Amies to front endpaper, very slight wear to boards, otherwise in Very Good condition, signed on crisp, clean leafs.

Sir Edwin Hardy Amies, KCVO (1909-2003), was a British fashion designer, best known for being the dress designer for HM Queen Elizabeth II for thirty-nine years. In the 1930s Amies rose to become one of Britain’s leading couturiers and his salon was one of the few to rival the great dress houses of Paris. After a successful pre-war career as a designer in other people’s fashion houses, Amies opened his own establishment at 14 Savile Row in 1946. In 1950 Amies made several outfits for Elizabeth’s royal tour to Canada (then Princess Elizabeth). He received the award of a Royal Warrant as official dressmaker in 1955. One of his best known creations is the gown he designed in 1977 for Queen Elizabeth’s Silver Jubilee portrait. Knighted in 1989, Amies held the warrant until 1990, when he gave it up so that younger designers could create for the Queen. He was also the couturier for Lady Alice Egerton, who was appointed as lady-in-waiting to the young Princess Elizabeth in 1949, and who would go on to become Woman of the Bedchamber when Elizabeth became queen in 1953.

For three years he travelled and worked in France and Germany; becoming fluent in both countries’ languages. Amies worked for a customs agent and then as an English tutor in Antibes, and later in Bendorf, Germany where in 1928 he acquired one of these volumes for his library. Around the same time, another of the volumes was acquired in a village on the Mosel River. He returned to England in 1930. The third volume is signed by him in 1933 and appears to have been gifted to him by famous Austrian writer Karl Heinrich Waggerl.

1861 DIARIES – MAP – Far East RUSSIA AMUR RIVER – Pioneer Navigation – Convicts

Russian Far East
Pioneering Navigation and Commerce
Early Steam Ships
On the Amur and Shilka Rivers

Two Primary Source Manuscript Diaries
Of an English Engineer
Contracted by the Amoor Shipping Company

Includes a Rare 1858 Map
of the Amur River

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Chita, Sretensk, Blagoveshchensk, TransBaikal villages, 17 May 1861 – 23 September 1880. Two manuscript journals of an English Engineer in Russian Far East, contracted to test and repair some of the pioneering steamships on the Rivers Amur and Shilka, and other important works in the Trans-Baikal region, beginning his work some 24 years before the founding of the Eastern Siberian Inland Navigation Company, and interacting several notables who were involved in the development projects. 8vo. The earliest volume comprises 113 pages of manuscript entries dating from 17 May 1861 to 22 July 1861 and then a few pages from and then from 1 January 1868 to 22 May 1870, with a tipped-in folding map of the Amur River. The subsequent volume contains 135 pages in manuscript and dates from 14 August 1876 to 23 September 1880. Cloth over marbled boards. Volumes measure approximately 19 x 24 cm and 17 x 20 cm, respectively. Map measures approximately 46 x 20 cm. Wear to boards, hinges loose, otherwise internally clean, an exceedingly scarce and early primary source account of early developments of steam navigation in the Far East of Russia.

This account is very early for the region, particularly the inner reaches of the Amur river and its tributaries, where there were scarce inhabitants or even visitors, and thus are even fewer surviving manuscript accounts. It pre-dates the founding of the important “Eastern Siberian Inland Navigation Company” which would be founded in 1885, twenty-four years after the writer began his pioneering work. It also pre-dates the Trans-Siberian Railway which would be built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers personally appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II).

The writer’s arrival occurs only three years after the Aigun Treaty in 1858, through which the area north of the Amur belonging to the Manchu Qing dynasty since the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk was suddenly ceded to Russia. The Amur River has formed Russia’s border with China since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and the 1860 Treaty of Peking.

A folding map compiled in 1858 according to contemporary Russian sources, delineates the winding route of the Amur River throughout the Russian-Chinese borderlands, from Lake Baikal, to the mountainous Transbaikal region, to the Sea of Okhotsk snd the Strait of Tartary. The map shows the combined geographical discoveries of M. A. Peschurof [Peskchurof] of the Russian Imperial Navy, KFSH (Lieutenant of Corps of Naval Navigators) Ensign Shenurin, Vesilief, G. Radde, Ensign Usolzoff, Pargachevski, and Lieut G. M. Permikin. [Lieutenant Peshchurof had made astronomical observations when he served as part of Admiral Putiatin’s journey up the Amur 1855. In the same year, Shenurin, Raebsky and Chikachef travelled by land from Nikolayevsk (Nikolayevsk-on-Amur) to Udsk or Ayan, and then to Yakutsk in the Russian Far East. In the summer of 1856 Usoltzof made a journey to the source of the Gilui and to the Dzeya, beginning his expedition at Ust Strelka, with the provisions being sent from Nerchinsk on rafts down the river.]Following are some close-up cropped views of the map:

The writer is a skilled engineer and has taken a contract with the Amur Shipping Company, one of the oldest industrial enterprises of the Russian Far East, and its successor, Amur Shipping Company Partnership. Its history is closely connected with emergence and development of navigation in Amur River.

He holds a supervisory role with others reporting to him. He is given charge of one of the earliest steamers on the Amur River. He pays out wages, makes necessary purchases, and is important enough to be invited to the occasional soirée. Those under his direction number in the hundreds. On 3 May 1879 he writes, “[steamships] Emma & Zea left hearly in morning, sent all things on board Andre and left with 300 workmen at 5,20 PM with strong winds downward – stoped 25 verses from Stretensky at 7.20 PM.” And on 2 May 1880, “Left on André 500 workmen left at 1 PM found not lesse than 5 feet of water passed.”

His skill also appears to be in high demand, as another firm tries to recruit him from time to time. We can deduce from the volumes that he learned the trade from an early age, presumably the family trade, and didn’t get a high formal education, owing to the spelling errors throughout. As such, he is a skilled engineer with a wide range of talents; he is sought after and respected for his work. He is married, and his wife immigrates to Russia in 1868, where they begin a family together.

The writer seems to be English, as he returns to London after his many years in Russia, although he may have family connections in America. Further research is warranted. He co-operates particularly well with the American Captain Norwick, who comes to him for all sorts of supplies. The two also exchange ideas concerning a ship repair. The two are clearly on friendly terms when the writer spends Christmas Eve at Captain Mr. and Mrs. Norwick’s home in 1868. For reasons undescribed though likely to do with his contract, on 22 January 1869, the writer “told Captain Nordwick [Norwick] not possible to do any more private work, paid him 51 pds [poods] for same.” He also remarks on American sailors’ behavior upon their arrival at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. On 22 June he notes having received many letters from home, many in which the news came of the death R. Smith. Evidently a notable man, who so many felt compelled to tell about, he is quite possibly “Raccoon” John Smith (1784-1868) Tennessee, an early leader in the Restoration Movement who worked primarily among the Baptists in Kentucky.

1 June 1861: The writer signs contract with company, given charge of steamship Nicolas:

The writer is working for the Amur Shipping Company:

There are numerous important persons named in the volume, most of which the writer has direct contact with. These include, but may not be limited to the following:

   •    Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (1809-1881), who on 5 September 1847 was appointed Governor-General of Irkutsk and Yeniseysk (Eastern Siberia).

   •    Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), Lieutenant General of Trans-Baikal, who was very much involved with the earliest trials and the development of expeditions on the Amur, having been appointed by HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia to lead special assignments.

   •    Archbishop St. Innocent, born in 1797, whose diocese beginning in 1853 was extended to include the vast region of Yakutsk, a Russian port city on the Lena River, in east Siberia.

   •    Captain Norwick, who commanded the steamship Amoor on the Amur River as early as 1858, having been commissioned by the Russian Governor, Rear Admiral Kazakevitch for an inland passage up the Amur, departing from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur 5 August 1858.

   •    Admiral Chestakoff, the Russian Minister of Marine, and was later involved in a reconnaissance mission during the British Occupation of Komundo, Japan, in 1885-1887.

   •    General Skolkoff, an Admiral, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, and chief of the Emperor’s personal Naval Staff, who was at the time initiating the construction of a new factory at Khabarovsk.

   •    Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882), a senior captain of a squadron in the Russian Imperial Army, who is widely credited as being the “father of steam-powered ship tactics” during the 19th century. He was the one who met with the Americans in October 1863 during the American embassy’s Official Mission to Russia.

   •    Freeman, presumably being S.W.K. Freeman who made a survey of the Manchurian coastline around 1855, which was published in 1861.

The official date of opening of the navigation on the Amur is considered the 14 (27) of May of 1854. On that day, following the order of the governor general of Eastern Siberia, N.N. Muravyov, the first Far Eastern steamship “Argun” left the Shilkinsky plant with a military float, and its captain was A.S. Sgibnev. The first steamships on the Amur were state, rather low-power, low-speed and low-efficient. However, the Amur River began to accept vessels made of iron early on, unlike the western basins where navigation appeared much earlier and began with a wooden fleet. Only some domestic vessels had wooden hulls: boilers and machines for them were ordered from the western countries, and hulls from wood were constructed at the Amur shipyards, more frequently in Blagoveshchensk. In the years of settlement of Priamurye, all transportations of mail and state freights were carried out by the vessels of the Siberian military flotilla. But it became more and more obvious that it was necessary to have a dedicated and locally-owned river transport enterprise on the Amur River. “Amurskaya Companiya” (Amur Company) was the first of such enterprises in 1858.

Later, to arrange of the passenger-and-mail service by the Amur River between the communities of Sretenskoe and Nikolaevsk, from Khabarovka by the Ussuri, by Lake Khanka to Kamen-Rybolov post there was a shipping company “Benardaki and Co” founded, later named “Amur Shipping Company Partnership”. The charter of “Amur Shipping Company Partnership” was most highly approved on 18 September 1871 to arrange the urgent steamship service of the Amur basin. The establishment of the partnership was supported by the government. In addition, along the Amur, the Ussuri and the Zeya there were organized special towing lines, mainly for floating and transporting timber. In 1871, the partnership bought 9 state steamships belonging to the Naval Ministry. During the 1872 navigation, 13 steamships of the partnership had already been operating. They were “Zeya”, “Onon”, “Ingoda”, “Chita”, “Songgachi”, “General Ditmarkh”, “Telegraph”, “Lena”, “Ussuri-1”, “Ussuri-2”, “Nikolaevsk”, “Konstantin”, “General Korsakov” – several of these being named in the present diaries. From 1876 to 1885 the chairman of the partnership board was the privy councilor, Neronov, who had done much for the development and the profitable work of Amur Shipping Company Partnership.

Due to the opened intensive navigation by the Amur River and its tributaries, the relations between various communities of the area quickened; the settlement of Priamurye by immigrants from the Central Russia intensified; trade, gold mining and forest industry began to take off. It was of great importance for the shipping company development that the cargoes by the Amur River were transported free of charge.

“… Governer [Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky] on board to visite Youzery”:

“General Korsakoff [Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich] was quite satisified with all of my works…”

Supplies for Bootakoof [Admiral Grigory Butakov]:

“Private work for Chestakoff [Russian Minister of Marine] on his locomotives: 

The earliest diary entries, 17 May to 22 July 1861, provide an exceedingly scarce and perhaps the only surviving primary source manuscript account of the earliest developments of steamship service on the Russian Amur River. The writer is employed by the historically important Amur Shipping Company and visiting little-inhabited settlements, some of which are principle cities in our present-day.

He is first based near Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, testing and working on new steamships on the Amur River, and its estuary at the Sea of Okhotsk. The early steamship navigation endeavors were initially intended for mail and communications between remote villages, although it quickly becomes apparent that its value was seen for developing commerce. Notable passengers include Governor General of Siberia Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky and Archishop Innocent.

Nikolayevsk-on-Amur had only been founded in 1850 by Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy, the small Russian settlement then named Nikolayevsky Post, after Tsar Nicholas I.

The settlement quickly became one of the main economic centres on the Pacific coast of the Russian Empire, in fact becoming Russia’s main Pacific harbour (replacing Petropavlovsk) in 1855 after the Siege of Petropavlovsk of 1854. It was granted town status and renamed Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, when in October 1856 Primorskaya Oblast was established. Admiral Vasily Zavoyko had supervised the construction of a naval base there a few months earlier. The town emerged as an important commercial harbour; however, due to navigational difficulties caused by the sandbanks in the Amur estuary and because sea ice made the harbour unusable for five months each year, the main Russian shipping activities in the Pacific transferred to the better situated Vladivostok in the early 1870s. The town remained the administrative centre of this region until 1880, when the governor relocated to Khabarovsk.

At the start of the first volume, in the morning of 17 May 1861, the writer is working on a steamship’s casing. He gets steam on board but not on the engine. He discusses the wedding of a Mr. Newser [presumably Neuser] which he will soon attend, then returns to his work, setting frames for a barge.

Two days later, 19 May 1861, his location is revealed. He is working on the Amur River, noting in his entry, “… found Amoor still rising, boat only leeked 1/0 mil in 24 hours, told Mr Norton that Barre had called him… Pollock and myself would bear witness of the same. Purgachesky endeavored to convince Pollock he did not know I wanted to stay in Company service but he told him differently.” The following day again his Russian manager causes trouble and undermines him, this time “Purgachesky caused water to be let in to Barge… with it all fisherman taken off steamer without me knowing it gone for good.” [Interesting to note, already the commerce of fishing around Nikolayevsk-on-Amur seems to have been a consideration for the early steamships.]

On the 22nd, he reports, “West River open at 12 Midday steamer Zee in sight, gave my resignation to Purgachesky. Zee landed passengers at 5 PM in a small boat Kozakaurich. Admiral arrived in Zee with much news. Agent spoke to me in evening asking me on what termes I wanted for this year told him it was too late I had given my word to Mr Chase.”

It seems he was well respected in the field and even sought after, as the following day, the company agent wanted to withdraw his letter of resignation, offering him 300 R per month to stay. He informed a Mr. Hayounios [?], presumably connected to Mr. Chase who had just offered him employment the day before, and Hayounios warned him that the agent had no authority to offer such a wage. Said agent was dismissed the same day.

On 24 May, he receives 3 letters from his wife, dated December 1860, January and February 1861; he learns of the American Civil War that had just begun in April; and he confirms that he cannot withdraw his letter, and thus has finally settled the matter of his employment.

On 25 May he reports, among other matters, that the Governor was onboard the steamship Zee [Governor General of Siberia, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was most likely returning from an important meeting held 14-15 Feburary 1861 concerning considering a proposal by the Minister of Finance on trade with China, specifically on allowing the import of Cantonese tea into the Russian Empire] “… told Agent required three sailors and boatsman continuoly a board – said he would see to it. Zee left at 1 P.M with Governer on board to visite Youzery [Ozery, Ozyory, a town in Moscow Oblast]. at 1.30 P.M lighted fire on board actionary started Engines. at 3 PM worked remarkably well all joint tight stoped at 6 PM Engine with full steam made 76 revolutions a minute. Agent dissired Carpenter to work to morrow. wrote to my wife’. “

[The Governor he is referring to is Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (1809-1881), who on 5 September 1847 was appointed Governor-General of Irkutsk and Yeniseysk (Eastern Siberia). His appointment was a subject of much controversy, as it was unusual for a person of his age (only 38 at the time) to be put in charge of such a vast territory. He pursued the exploration and settlement of the territories north of the Amur River, often utilizing the help of political exiles. Many of his actions were aimed to expand commerce in the Far Eastern region. An expedition in 1855 transported the first Russian settlers to the Amur’s estuary. Muravyov started negotiations with the Chinese about that time, a border along the Amur River. During the last expedition of 1858, Muravyov concluded the Treaty of Aigun with the Qing official Yishan. The Treaty of Aigun expanded by the provisions of the Beijing Treaty of 1860, which granted Russia right to the Ussuri krai and southern parts of Primorye. Muravyov-Amursky made numerous attempts to settle the shores of the Amur River. These attempts were mostly unsuccessful as very few people wanted to move to the Amur voluntarily. Muravyov had to transfer several Baikal Cossacks detachments to populate the area. He also attempted to organize steamboat transportation on the Amur (illustrated in this primary source diary account) and to build a postal road. As the main objection of the St. Petersburg officials against taking over the left bank of the Amur was lack of people to defend the new territories, Muravyov-Amursky successfully petitioned to free Nerchinsk peasants from mandatory works in the ore mines. With these people, a 12,000 corps of Amur Cossacks was formed and used to settle some of the lands, the military core being the Cossacks transferred from the Transbaikalia. He retired from his post of Governor General in 1861 (the same year as the writer’s report) after his proposal to divide Eastern Siberia into two separate governorates general was declined. He was subsequently appointed as a member of the State Council. is seen as Governor General Mouravieff in American newspapers of the period.]

On 26 May he mentions the Bishop [Archbishop Innocent], and on the 27th “Honkey, Bishop and several visitors their [sic] went on a little trip with Amoor Steamer…” He also gets report that the steamer engine was not up to par with its revs per minute, noting that he had advised the agent of the inadequacy one month previous.

[Bishop Innocent, born in 1797, was elevated to the rank of archbishop in April 1850. Two years later his diocese extended to include the vast region of Yakutsk, a Russian port city on the Lena River, in east Siberia. In September 1853 he arrived in the city of Yakutsk, where he would serve for many years. Archbishop St. Innocent was summoned to St. Petersburg twice (in 1860 and 1861), as the Holy Synod was to approve his proposal for transferring the See from Yakutsk to Amur and to establish vicarages in New Archangel, on the Sitka Island and Yakutsk. The bishop made archpastoral and missionary trips along the Amur and Ussuri Rivers.]

On May 28th we learn that Mr. Hayounios[?] is an interpreter, and on June 1st the writer has a newborn son, and finally signs his contract, which gives him full charge of steamer Nicolas effective the next day. [Steamer Nicholas I had been launched in 1843 and dismantled in 1856, therefore this steamer ‘Nicholas’ is its successor.] After a celebratory soirée, preparations were made on 3 June 1861 to host a dinner for “60 persons on board Nicolas on her trial trip…”

On the 4th, the writer reports that he “paid a to visit Amoor Company… stoped at Chenerack.”

[Amoor company mentioned by the writer is “Amur Shipping Company,” one of the oldest industrial enterprises of the Russian Far East. Its history is closely connected with emergence and development of navigation in Amur River. The official date of opening of the navigation on the Amur is considered the 14 (27) of May of 1854. On that day, following the order of the governor general of Eastern Siberia, N.N. Muravyov, the first Far Eastern steamship “Argun” left the Shilkinsky plant with a military float, and its captain was A.S. Sgibnev (a settlement on the upper Amur is called after his name).]

In June 1861, the writer would head up several trial voyages and tests for the new steamer Nicolas. On the 6th, the engine was tested and found that the engine worked well, but not the pump. After some adjustments the following day, the reverse occurred; the engine choking but the pump functioning well. On Saturday the 8th he obtained more red lead from Freeman, and candles for the steamer. He also paid off two of the men employed on the steamer the past week.

[Freeman is frequently mentioned in the volume, and provides the writer with wood, iron, etc. S.W.K. Freeman made a survey of the Manchurian coastline around 1855, which was published in 1861, and filed with the Admiralty charts. Perhaps he settled in the area.]

On the 10th, more “running about after articles for trial trip to morrow” and a Mr. Etravo asked him to produce his “certificate of a Englishman.”

The entry of 11 June 1861 reads, at 9 AM priest blessed steamer Nicolas at 11.30 AM started on trial trip with many officers on board run from Koska to Chinerack in 38 minute Engine at most making 36 revolutions towed Corrinth barge up the last … fell overboard arrived home at about 8 P.M…”

On 13 June 1861, “at 7 AM had a trial trip with English steamer Korzakoff run well made 1 ½ Miles marks 9 minutes up 6 ½ down run round Lena (evidently a small riverside settlement named after the river Lena)… Belegory expressed himself perfectly satisfied gave me 500 R. as also J.P.”

On 14 June 1861 the Korzakoff [steamer] “left for Leman went down as far as Chinierack return in a small boat with Belegory and dined with him got back at 2 PM… got 2 letters from home”. [Leman is the Amur Liman which connects the Sakhalin Gulf of the Sea of Okhotsk with the main body of the Strait of Tartary via the Nevelskoy Strait. “Amur Liman” is often translated as “Amur Estuary” or “Amur Mouth”]

Progress in the town is indicated with the entry of 15 June 1861“at 1 PM two Briggs and two Schooner arrived got charts from Desrey and sent them to Capt Crely many strangers arrived got some iron from Amoor Company two plates… two angle iron…” The following day supplies are purchased from a Russian merchant’s store, vessels come and go, and “charts are marked.”

The momentum continues from this point, with more brigs and schooners arriving. One of these finds itself “aground in Leman [Amur Liman].” On 19 June the writer “asked Governor for wood certificate to go up river” which was denied.

On 20 June, he reports, “… got three anchors out to pul steamer in shore to get tank to Korzakoff arrived at 4 PM with 14 Bullock and three horses and two barges made 12 verse [verst] per hour going up … left again in two hours to fetch Palonbe in the Leman [Amur Liman]” The following day we find the first mention of Chita, with a steamer from that place arriving” Chita steamer arrived said to be only 14 hours from Kissy no mail on board.” [Chita is the last Russian city before the trans-Siberian railway enters China. Mongolia lies even closer to the south.]

A few days later there is mention of Americans in the region, “several fight on shore between American sailors.” On the 25th a fine English steamer arrives. The writer is measuring wood to build a float barge. More English names begin to appear in his entries from here on. A Japanese schooner also appears on scene, the port town slowly becoming recognized abroad.

On 7 July, he notes that he was deemed not responsible for some kind of catastrophe. He also remarks that he “received letter from Amur Comp requesting me to return home…

On 17 July we find the first mention of the town Nikolayevsky, as he is evidently making a passage for home “… started at 6.30 PM from Nikolavsky droped anchor at 9.15 PM 7 verses [versts] below Sebaek… told Admiral I whould if profitable get the 141 on from Alexandroff for sugar…” On the 20th he left “Meculostky” and stopped at “Kisy” to get some wood. The following day, still searching for wood, he called in at “Sophisk” where he succeeded in obtaining a permit. As he travels, he searches for stations along the Amur, and continues to work on various vessels. This portion of the diary ends on 22 July 1861 as he assesses a paddle wheel and a boiler.

In addition to his main employment the author does a bit of trading on the side. On 3 October 1868 he writes: “Sold Petherick tea 32 bricks for 28 RS”, and on 9 April 1870: “Sold my silver to Zablosky for 1,25.” And on 7 January 1869: “Received from Dïtch 10 Rs for Iron sold of Jew [in] Bienking, and 17 Rs for oven boy Jew, one sailor left work without notice.”

Steamship Nicolas’s first trip voyage, writer visits Amur Company office

“… asked Governor for wood certificate to go up river…
could not give it… Discharging schooner…”

“… started at 6.30 PM from Nikolavsky droped anchor at 9.15 PM…”

Thirty months more of regular diary entries, from December 1867 to May 1870, continue to reveal ongoing development of remote river navigation and access in the remote regions of Southeast Siberia, this time on the Shilka river. We find the writer at Shilka, Sretensk, possibly at Karymskoe, and Blagoveshchensk, all of these being then only modest settlements. He also mentions the Katorga prisoners from Nerchinsk, a group of Polish men performing forced labour.

His work on the pioneering steamships is directly applauded by Lieutenant General of Trans-Baikal, Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), who was very much involved with the earliest trials and the development of expeditions on the Amur, having been appointed by HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia to lead special assignments. He was also approached by General Skolkoff, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, being solicited for a contract to build a new factory at Khabarovsk.

After a page with only two entries from September 1866, the writer begins to record his work in the volume once again, with three entries from November-December 1867, revealing that he remains in the same line of work and is still in Russia. From January 1868 to May 1870 he journals almost daily. We quickly learn that his wife is now living with him in Russia.

Being in a very continental subarctic climate with very cold winters, at times rivers would have a thick frozen crust of ice, and land transportation was facilitated by Russian horses pulling sleds, all of which he describes in the diary. Also being remote, and in fact pioneering the means by which these locales would eventually gain access to goods, throughout the volume, the author is engaged in a constant struggle for parts and labour.

He starts the year 1868 with an ongoing and frustrating search for coal for the steamships. On 1 January 1868 he is “In Bienking by Kaparacky Mill” [possibly referring to Karymskoe, then situated on the left bank of the Ingoda river], waiting for “coals for blacksmith,” and around this time the lack of coals for blacksmith is a common complaint. On 17 January he describes the urgency “told Prodrasky that if I did not soone have coals I should not be able to get Steamers ready, left for Bienking in evening at 5 PM.” He spends quite some time in January working on the Kaparacky mill, hired directly by the government. An important work indeed, soon all hands were employed at on the mill, perhaps rebuilding it, until the end of the month.

Back to working on the vessels, on 23 February he is busy with an iron barge and the steamer Korsakoff. We begin to notice production increasing and quality of materials evolving. On 7 March a transport vessel arrives with 127 horses and the writer procured “streit iron for hoop, iron and steel gone.” On 9 March he is “still” working on large iron and the hull of steamship Korsakoff. The harsh northern winters take their toll on workflow however. As early as 11 March, the writer is contending with freezing waterways“Obliged to leave off work on hull of Korsakoff to clear ice from under her…” The following day he “Sent 25Rs to Troeven [?] for India Rubber for Korsakoff head or delevery valve…”

Captain Norwick is mentioned several times from this point, and to the end of the volume, the captain requesting steamship boilers and the like, the two being in communication and often collaborating with jobs and supplies.

[A seasoned commander, Captain Norwick commanded the steamship Amoor on the Amur River as early as 1858. He is mentioned in the New York Herald of 20 April 1859, reporting that with the consent of the Russian Governor, Rear Admiral Kazakevitch had commissioned the latter for an inland passage up the Amur, departing from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur 5 August 1858. Evidently the steamship Amoor was American built, as were others. And, at this time, the Russian government possessed a small fleet of 5 steamers on the Amur, 3 of them however being non-operational. These vessels were named Amoor, Shilka, Lena, Nadoshka, and the towboat Argoon. P.V. Kazakevich was the first military governor of Primorsky Krai, at the time called Primor’e. In 1866 he called for a “rapid formation of a maritime settlement” and the next few years he attracted a small group of fishermen from the Caspian Sea to Nikolayevsk, believing that they could transfer their sturgeon fishing skills to the lower Amur. The lack of markets resulted in a short-lived plan.]

On 17 March 1868 we learn that one of his colleagues, Barislatfsky, had gone to Chita, which would become aa more regular occurrence. His entry describes a typical busy day, “Cold, took condenser of Korsakoff to pieces to get under her to repair hull sent a letter to Petherick by Miss Devideva Barishafsky returned from Shita [Chita], gave in Estimation for Material for 1869,” Two days later he writes, “Sent money for soap and candles for Petherick and a letter to Soderoff to say his lath was finished Lutz said he expected the repairs of his Steamer to cost 300 Rs I told him not more than 200 in Machine shop very wharm day, not finished cleaning under Korsakoff for 1 patch more spoke long about it.”

[Chita (formerly known as Chitinsk) is a city and the administrative center of present-day Zabaykalsky Krai, in southeast Siberia in Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers. In the mid-19th century, Chitinsk became one of the most important strongholds in the development of the Amur River region. In an effort to strengthen Transbaikalia and on the urgent recommendation of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky, Emperor Nicholas I created the Transbaikal Cossack army of six horse regiments with a military administrative center in Chitinsk. In 1851, with a population of 659 people, Chita received the status of a town and became the center of the newly created separate Zabaykalsky (Trans-Baikal) Oblast. When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one, also wooden, church. He estimated Chita’s population at under 1,000, but predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. Indeed, the rapid growth and development of Chita began. In 1863, the population totaled 3,140 people and by 1885 Chita’s population had reached 5,728. By 1897 it had increased to 11,848. Still then, most of the buildings in the town were wooden.]

On 2 April, he mentions water being on the Chilka and bad roads, this suggesting that he is posted in the small settlement of Shilka, situated on the banks of the river for which it was named. [Shilka was settled in the 18th century, but would not gain town status in 1951, not for another century after the writer’s time there. Today it is the administrative center of Shilkinsky District in Zabaykalsky Krai.] Again on the 7th, Barislafsky returned from Chita, which is only some 248 kilometers (154 mi) west of Shilka. On 16 April, he remarks “water rising in Chilka” [Shilka river]. On the 22nd, he is pleased to have found a crank part for the steamer Korsakoff which came from Irkvotsk [Irkutsk], and on the 23rd the “Shilka shook her ice for about 2 verse [versts].” The following day the “river opened with high water [and] iron barge leeked but little…”, and soon enough the same barge ran aground.

He occasionally visits Stretchensky [Sretensk] which at the time was but another small settlement, usually to test the repairs on the steamships. He writes on 11 May 1868, “Zea and myself on board [Korsakoff] went to Stretchensky all worked well, gone to Somoff…” He also remarks that “16 Gov’t barges from Shita [Chita]… all work stoped for cleaning factory by orders of captain.”

[Sretensk is a town and the administrative center of Sretensky District in Zabaykalsky Krai, located on the right bank of the Shilka River (Amur basin), 385 kilometers (239 mi) east of Chita. Founded in 1689, between October 1914 and 1921, it accommodated the Sretensk prisoner of war camp, and finally in 1926 it was granted town status.]

On 20 May, the writer receives accolades by none other than Russian statesman Lieutenant General Korsakoff of Trans-Baikal. He writes in his diary, “Saw Korsakoff off at 10.30… was told by G C Shoulman that it was reported that I wanted to leave told him I would not leave before my contract was out and that was a long way… was told by him that G. Korsakoff was quite satisfied with all my works and doing…”

[Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), in 1848 was appointed official on special assignments to HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia. At the beginning of 1849, Korsakov was sent on a secret mission to the Sea of Okhotsk to meet the Baikal transport sent for reconnaissance at the mouth of the Amur. In 1854, already in the rank of lieutenant colonel Korsakov, in Irkutsk, he disposed of all the preparatory work for equipping the Russian expedition to Amur; having traveled along the Amur along with Muraviev himself, he supervised the supply of Ayansk port and the coast of Kamchatka with all the necessary supplies. In December 1854, Korsakov outfitted the second expedition to Amur, with which he sailed along the Amur in May 1855, after which he was appointed commander of the troops concentrated at the mouth of the Amur.]

An entry in June reveals that convict labour had begun in the new steamship driven commerce, those from Nerchinsk. He writes, “June. Wens 10. Much rain but still low water in Shilka [river] was told a certain convict a gents son had run away from Nertchinsk, a new set of convicts “

[Katorga, as it was called, was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions. In the area of the Nerchinsk Mining District [ru], which encompassed a large part of eastern Transbaikalia (today’s Chita Oblast), labor was used for mining lead ore and silver on tsar’s private lands (so called cabinet lands) and in foundries, also for wine-making and salt-processing factories. From 1850 to 1890, katorga labor was used at Kara gold fields and for the construction of prison buildings. According to George Kennan, “a few of the Decembrist conspirators of 1825” and “thousands of Polish insurgents” from their unsuccessful insurrection of 1863″ were transported to the Nerchinsk silver-mining district.]

An entry on 1 July 1868 reveals that Archbishop Innocent had paid a visit to the area again, travelling by steamer on the Amur river of course. And on the 6th “Governor Korsackoff arrived & went to Stretentchsky on Ingoda.” The following day “Korsackoff left on board Shita for Nikolayevsk.”

On 7 July the writer announces that a carpenter had finished his house.

As more steamships are built, they continue to be named after local towns and the rivers. For example, steamers are named Shilka, Onon, Ingoda, Nikolayevsk, the latter “arrived with 21 poods of gold.”

On 10 August we find that the town of Blagoweshen [Blagoveshchensk] is now a port of call, this place situated at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers. A miscellaneous note at the end of the volume has for a heading “Wanted at Blagowcshensky [Blagoveshchensk]” and is followed by a list of items to bring to Admiral Bootakoff.

[Although Russian settlers had lived in the area as early as 1644 and were known as “Hailanpao” the Chinese name for the city), the present-day city began in 1856 as the military outpost of Ust-Zeysky; this name means settlement at the mouth of the Zeya River in Russian. Tsar Alexander II gave approval for the founding of the city in 1858 as the seat of government for the Amur region, to be named Blagoveshchensk (literally “the city of good news”) after the parish church which was dedicated to the Annunciation. According to Blagoveshchensk authorities, by 1877 the city had some 8,000 residents, with merely 15 foreigners (presumably, Chinese) among them.]

An entry on November 1868 mentions the Polish convicts, “… Order from Shita [Chita] through Barislafsky to send away the last three Poles prostrated against it, convict received 250 lashes…”

A change of routine occurs in the early part of the year, being commissioned for a contract. The 13 February 1869 entry reads, “Got private work for Chestakoff on his locomotive.” [Admiral Chestakoff was the Russian Minister of Marine, and was later involved in a reconnaissance mission during the British Occupation of Komundo, Japan, in 1885-1887.]

It seems that Captain Norwick is beginning to lose favour. On 10 March 1869, an entry states, “Nordwick had a dispute with Captains through them not been willing to undersign papers of receiving materials.” And on 16 April, “Lutz bought Nordwick’s house.” In spite of the situation, the writer continues to trade with Norwick.

The author’s work appears to be arduous and unrelenting. One of the few references to recreation involves a horse race, with the author writing on 18 March 1869, “Great race for 1000Rs against 200 with Samsonowich and Golbert the later won, my horse took fright.”

On 14 September 1869 begins a revealing passage, including the summary of the writer’s firsthand conversation with General Skolkoff, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, who was initiating the construction of a new factory at Khabarovsk, and evidently sought the writer’s involvement in the important project The event unfolds as follows, “General Ditmare arrived and left on Onon at 4 PM he going to Kara and Onon to the Amoor. Colonel Gertz arrived to review material in harbour.
15 September: Began, With Col Gertz to weight materials, Nicolaefsky arrived at 5 PM, expecting Skolkoff.
16 September: Weighing materiale of Harbour was sent on board Nicolaefsky found boiler a little burnt other things all well.
17 September: Fine day finished Materiales Admiral Skolkoff arrived on Zea at 9 PM.
18 September: Admiral out in harbour had a long talk with him said he wishes to have this factory in Kabarofsky [Khabarovsk] Left on Zea at 11. AM for Brenking Nordwick not in Uniform to Receive him
1 October: Zea returned from Brenking, saw Barislofsky told me Korsakoff wished him to speak with me about contract got a letter from Barre”

[General Skolkoff is described in The Times of 14 May 1874 as ‘an Admiral, Aide -de-Camp General, and chief of the Emperor’s personal Naval Staff.’ After the 1858 Treaty of Aigun, the Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka, named after seventeenth century Russian adventurer Yerofey Khabarov who is best known for his exploring the Amur river region and his attempts to colonize the area for Russia. The post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880. In 1893, it was given its present name of Khabarovsk.]

On 2 October 1869 his entry reveals Captain Nordwick’s involvement in convict conveyance“… Orders from Zagaring to send all convicts to Kara, Koskawich arrived at 6 PM all well, Nordwick sent Telegram to Governor for permission to retain convicts.”

And on 3-4 November 1869, more dealings with Cpatain Nordwick, “Saw Barrislafsky asked him about boiler for fire engine, told me it was for harbour not for him. Told Nordwick of same when he said we had a round one which would do for us I told him it would be of no use but he thought different, asked for bricklayer to see to ovens of factory and my house… Much ice in Chilka no bricklayer sent to see to oven, asked Nordwick about 4 large tubes for water in factory in case of fire.”

So much remains to be learned from this volume, which continues until 20 May 1870. Before concluding, the writer documents the end of his current work and an imminent relocating, “11 May 1870. Had an interview privately with Gen. Karsakoff was well received. Thurs 12 Gave machine shop over to Clotz, low water in Chilka [Shilka river]… Sund 22 Baptized Maria and prayer meeting in my house. Leave to morrow if can get house all packed up.”

… crank for Korsakoff which came from Irkvotsk [Irkutsk]…

Nerchinsk mining district prisoners used as labour:

Death of R. Smith:

The second volume begins six years later, and continues to yield fascinating information from the formative years of Russia’s Far East communications. The writer is by this time a very seasoned engineer, continuously gaining respect from the leaders directly connected to the Russian monarchy. More notables are mentioned.

With the heading “Journale Andre 1876” this volume begins 14 August 1876, once again working in the Trans-Baikal region. Andre, sometimes seen as Andree, is a new steamship which the writer was testing and perfecting for navigation in the complex and challenging river system. The writer testing the performance of an engine by taking a steamship up river. On the 20th he remarks, “Helena arrives, entered protest”, perhaps referring to events brewing in the conflict between Russian Workers and Intelligenty, which would ultimately culminate into the Kazan Square Demonstration in December the same year.

Some details from a cursory look through this volume:

Low water levels in May 1877 cause some hardships, and we also learn that some form of lochs have been constructed on the Shilka river. On 4 May 1877, “Ditmare a ground just outside of locks. Could not move further water in Schilka Standing… a little rain.” The following day again the writer was “out at harbour at 7 AM found Ditmare aground and all asleep 12 men waiting, returned to town & sent out 20 more men… at 4 PM out again at harbour and brought Ditmare to Stretensky, at 7 PM informed Pauloloff she was quite ready. water stoped rising. Water standing.” On 6 May, there seems to be hope for progress, “Water rising 1″ per day got all lugage on board Ditmare… Telegrame from Skapalzine that only 2′ of water in Schilka.” On 7 May he equips the vessel, “Left on board Ditmare at 1,50 PM with 220 men 500 Poods Sukary [dates] 5 cask of Spirits, 2 Verses [versts] above Mongady found 3 ft of water but concluded nearer shore to have 3 1/2 of water. Stoped at village Ouledgesh.” An arduous procedure ensues the following few days to get the ship afloat and on its voyage, requiring continuous stops to measure water levels and adjust its path accordingly, this interjected with periods of waiting for water to rise.

On 16 May 1877 he reports, “Andree again a trial trip upward 4 verses [versts] with Director on board all worked well and all quite satisfiyed with Steamer Andree…”.

Another run of locomotive work begins on 17 January 1879. He writes, “Work finished and packed up all machinery for André at 11. A.M. Lebotking ordered 1 sleigh for me to morrow morning himself left at 11 PM Feodoroff drunk.
18 January. Lower Demetry Locomobile again started after 3 days & night repaires. Myself with Stop valve for Andree left Priska at 9. AM. arrived at Residense at 9. PM found Lebotking Mykoff & Jelvettre here
19 January. Boiler of Nicolaefsky and frames ready loaded for Priska. Leboking & Mykoff left at 11 PM….
27 January. 22 of cold Feodoroff arrived here at 9.AM Told me le locomobile of lower saw mill was brought back to shop to change all tubes
28 January. 21 of degrees Spirit arrived from Stretensky Doctore & F returned at 11. PM the worse for wine.”

On 29 March 1879 he describes a catastrophe in Sretensk, “At 2 AM Fire broke out in old stores in market place Stretensky and burnt down 19 shops and hotel got most of my things out and took lodgings by Pauveloff at 7 AM all this time on Schilka [Shilka River].”

On 30 August 1879 he writes: “Bootakoff name day he went to see barge in Platoke returned at 12 MD said would be finished to day.” The writer is speaking of Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882) who appears to have been in the region for some months following.

On 21 November 1879 the diary reveals that not all men were keen on his presence: “Bootakoff again insulted by Goshcoff,” and the following day, “Bootakoff left to complain in Albazine.”

[Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882), known as “Captain Bootakoff from Oslaba,” was a senior captain of a squadron in the Russian Imperial Army. Butakov is widely credited as being the father of steam-powered ship tactics during the 19th century. He was the one who met with the Americans in October 1863 during the American embassy’s Official Mission to Russia, led by Hon. G.V. Fox. Samuel D. Tillman, Chairman of the American Institute Polytechnic Association had invited the Rear Admiral S. Lessoffsky to a discussion about iron-clad vessels, including iron plating. Lessoffsky was unable to attend and sent Butakov in his place. This was a significant event and garnered attention in Europe as well, being reported in London Standard Newspaper, the Freeman’s Journal from Dublin, and possibly other news. In 1881 Butakov assumed the role of Commander-in-Chief of the Port of St. Petersburg.]

The volume ends with a short list of repairs made to the steamer Andrée, and a more substantial list of the same for steamer Djinlinder in the years 1878-79.

With the last entries in the second volume, written in August 1880, he travels via Tomsk and St Petersburg, and after a quick passage arrives by rail in London at the now historic Cannon Street Road. He is immediately taken ill with a fever, from which he is still suffering, under the care of a Dr Vickers, as the journal ends on 23 September 1880.

Of added interest, this volume features some quick gold-digging expeditions made by the writer in his spare time. [Russia has a handful of major gold producing regions in the east; Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Magadan, Amur, and Chelyabinsk. Krasnoyarsk in particular is one of the more prolific gold mining regions in the world.]

He writes on 15 December 1878, Left for gold washing at 10AM with doctore” and the following day Arrived at Vassiloff gold washing at 1 midnight nighted by Doctore Footerine here but left at 9 P.M.”

Again on 11 January 1880, he sets out to find the precious mineral, though it seems that the company was involved as one of the ships were used for the voyage, “Nerpine left at 10 AM for Residense Larring at 4 PM for procuring new place for gold 120 verses [versts] from here,” and a week later: “Larring returned from seeking gold but found none.” Another attempt is made on 18 February 1880, “Nerpine directore returned at 4 PM from Alexzy. gold washing good gold found at last years place To day left good to transport to gold washings.

Fire in Sretensk market:

Gold washing:

Brief history of Chita and area:

The writer is for a time in the Chita area, in present-day Zabaykalsky Krai. Chita was incorporated as a town in 1851 – only 10 years before the present journals begin and the writer arrives in the region. He was employed by wealthy Russian and Siberian pioneers of steamship navigation on the Amur River. Chita was a mining center in a region that was only just beginning to develop, largely due to the Jewish exiles known as Decembrists, who had settled there. They educated the small Russian population and are responsible for the increase in trade, which was primarily timber, gold and uranium, all harvested from the region.

The settlement of Chita, in Siberia’s Trans-Baikal region, is known since 1653, but it had been overshadowed by Nerchinsk until the twentieth century. Since the end of the 17th century, this settlement was known successively as Chitinskoye plotbishche, Chitinskaya sloboda, Chitinskiy fort, Chitisnkoye settlement, and simply Chitinsk.

In the early 1820s, there were 300 residents and 26 houses. After 1825 several (some say approximately 85) of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita, and thus, Chita is on occasion called the “City of Exiles”. Many of the Decembrists were intellectuals and members of the middle class, and consequently their arrival had a positive effect.

In 1836, the Russian Tsar, Nicholas I allowed some Jews of the Pale of Settlement to establish themselves permanently in Siberia and become, unusually in Jewish history, agriculturists. A notable migration of Jews to the Chita region occurred in the second half of the 19th century, due to building of silver plants and mines in Transbaikal, and its closeness to the Russian border with China which helped the newly built townlets enjoy an international trade. There were four ranks of Jewish immigrants allowed in Transbaikal, divided into top traders, specialists or craftsmen; soldiers (former cantonists and their families); and political exiles. As a result, most of the Jewish population which moved to Chita and other townlets were male.

The well-educated exiles made an effort to educate the citizens of Chita and pursue trade. Through these efforts, the City would eventually become a major trading portal in Siberia, particularly since the natural resources of the area included timber, gold and uranium.

When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one, also wooden, church. He estimated Chita’s population at under 1,000. He predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. Indeed, by 1885 Chita’s population had reached 5,728, and by 1897 it increased to 11,500.

Located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers (560 mi) east of Irkutsk, today, Chita is a city and the administrative center of present-day Zabaykalsky Krai, in southeast Siberia in Russia.

Steamship building on Lake Baikal had also only just begun, but unlike the iron-clad Amur River steamships, these vessels were made of wood.

In 1823 the engineer-mechanic Rozen put the idea about steamship building on Lake Baikal into mind. But the Departments of Navy and Budget didn’t support the project. Nikita Fedorivich Myasnikov went at a hard task in organization of the steamship building here. Nikita Fedorivich Myasnikov was a merchant belonging to the top guild from Rostov, commercial counselor. He was the son of Siberian millionaire Fedor Borisovich Myasnokov and also the gold-miner, owner of distilleries and water mills.

Myasnikov petitioned the Ministry of Finance for the accordance of a privilege to him for shipping organization on the Siberian rivers. On 8 December 1839 such privilege was given to him. It admitted the exclusive right to found and to support the shipping company on Lake Baikal and rivers Ob’, Tobol, Irtysh, Yenisei, Lena and its tributaries for a 10-year period.

The place for steamships building was chosen in 18 verst (63 000 ft) above Irkutsk on the left bank of the Angara River by village Grudinino. On 29 March 1843 the foundation of the first steamship’s wooden hull was laid, and on 15 September the first ship, named Nicholas I, was launched. It was 35 m long, 4 m wide and 8 m with paddle guards. The barge for haulage was built together with the steamship. The second ship Successor Cesarevitch (Crown Prince) and the second barge were laid after the first ship’s launching. …..

‘Emperor Nicholas I’ was damaged during the storm but repaired in 1854, and then it got burnt and stripped down in 1856. ‘Crown Prince’ maintained a regular service on Lake Baikal, but it went down in 1860. Myasnokovs didn’t have any ships more, but the shipping company’s activity continued on Lake Baikal, the Rivers Angara and Selenga. D. Benardaki, a retired lieutenant, participant of Amur campaign, built two ships in Listvyanichnoe in 1858: the first was named for the sake of governor-general – Muravjev-Amurskij, and he gave his own name to the second ship without false modesty – Benardaki.

The Eastern-Siberian Inland Navigation Company on Lake Baikal was founded in 1885. The Ministry’s Committee Regulations about the steam navigation on the Angara River was approved on 17 August 1885. This date is deemed to be the day of firm’s establishment.

1936 Tundan Photos – WAZIRISTAN CAMPAIGN – RAZMAK to KOHAT – Northwest Frontier

Waziristan Campaign 1936-1939
Primary Source Photographs
By Tundan of Kabul
King’s Royal Rifle Corps
Marching Through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Waziristan, 1936-1939. Two albums of photographs taken by professional Afghani photographer known simply as Tundan, while accompanying the King’s Royal Rifle Corps through the passes and plains of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Norther Waziristan Agency) during the Waziristan Campaign of 1936-1939. Contains 44 gelatin silver print photographs, most with embedded inscribed numbers and photographer’s name, some with further caption, mounted onto black cardstock leaves, not necessarily in sequential order. Photographs measure approximately 20 x 15 cm. Contained in two oblong 8vo. string-tied albums with black cardstock boards, each measuring approximately 25 x 20 x 2 cm. Chips to album covers, varying degrees of fading and mirroring to some images, otherwise in Very Good Condition, a remarkable photographic chronicle providing detailed insight into the vast terrain that some 60,000 soldiers marched and defended.B. Tundan, a professional photographer from Kabul, is best remembered for his work performed directly alongside the British troops during the Waziristan Campaign of 1936-1939, photographing not only the soldiers and convoys, but capturing recognizable scenes, structures such as forts and bridges, as well as villages along the way. Tundan and his associates, along with occasional photographic rivals, produced several pictures showing the King’s Royal Rifle Corps regiment running its paces in 1936, during the Waziristan Revolt. Tundan is credited for capturing the vast majority of photographs of the Northamptonshire’s 76-mile march from Razmak to Bannu in late October to early November 1936, a historic event which is well represented in the present albums. At the time, his photographs served as a guide to troops travelling through and patrolling the area, as the soldiers carried them around in their own personal albums for reference. Approaching a century later, today the photographs serve as a superb primary source visual chronicle of the historic campaign in a region which was so rarely seen in pictures in any event. The photographer most often identified himself only by his name ‘Tundan’ on the photograph, however in one instance herein, he inscribes ‘Tundan Razani’, suggesting that Razani was the location of his workshop.From the earliest stages of the demonstrative military march in October-November 1936, to the expansion of base camps for the numerous reinforcement troops and more elaborate operations in 1937, the images demonstrate the sheer magnitude of maintaining a presence and protecting British interests in the Northwest Frontier during heightened opposition.
The Waziristan Campaign (1936-1939) was a series of operations by a combined British and Indian force intended to restore Imperial hegemony in the Waziristan region of the Northwest Frontier of British India. The campaign began in response to a revolt incited by the Waziri leader Ghazi Mirzali Khan Wazir, nicknamed the Fakir of Ipi by the British, who had launched a jihad against British rule for their intervention in a religious conversion and planned marriage of a young Indian girl.A British Indian court ruling in March 1936 was the catalyst to the uprising, when the judge stood against the marriage of Islam Bibi, née Ram Kori, at Jandikhel, Bannu. The Hindu girl had converted to Islam but was handed back to the Hindu community after the girl’s family filed case of abduction and forced conversion. The ruling was based on the fact that the girl was a minor. She was therefore asked to make her decision of conversion and marriage after she reached the age of majority. Until then, she was asked to live with a third party. The verdict enraged the Pashtuns, and further mobilized the Faqir of Ipi for a guerrilla campaign against the British Empire.A month after the incident, the Faqir of Ipi called a tribal jirga (Pashtun council) in the village of Ipi near Mirali to declare war against the British Empire. The Dawar Maliks and mullahs left the Tochi for the Khaisor Valley to the south to rouse the Torikhel Wazirs. Indeed, the Tori Khel tribesmen of North Waziristan also rose in revolt. The Fakir of Ipi’s activities quickly threatened communications with Razmak garrison.In late October, the British decided to send an expedition into the Khaisora Valley to reassert control. But columns from Razmak and Mir Ali soon met fierce opposition and were compelled to withdraw to Mir Ali. These early reverses of the British, caused by attacks of the tribal Lashkars, led to widespread insurrection among Wazirs, Mahsuds, Bhittanis, and Afghans – all under the leadership of the mysterious Fakir of Ipi. As early as December 1936, reports of assaults on the troops were being reported and published in Great Britain and her colonies.The British had to reinforce their garrisons throughout Waziristan. Over 30,000 troops, together with armoured cars and aircraft, were then deployed against his followers. The Fakir’s men, however, were skilled at guerrilla warfare and knew the region intimately. Aware that the British would not cross an international boundary, they frequently took refuge behind the Durand Line which divided British tribal territory from Afghanistan. During an April 1937 attack, for example, a British convoy of vehicles, escorted by six armoured cars, was ambushed in a narrow defile at Shahpur Tangi. Seven officers and 45 men were killed, while another 47 were wounded.At the height of the campaign, 60,000 imperial troops were garrisoned on the frontier in towns such as Razmak, Bannu and Wana. Support for the Fakir began to wane and most, of the additional forces were withdrawn towards the end of 1937. As such, the decision was made to withdraw most of the additional brigades that had been brought up to bolster the garrisons at Razmak, Bannu and Wanna as it was decided that their presence would only serve to inflame the situation. Trouble flared again in 1938 when a lashkar attacked Bannu, and the campaign would continue into 1939.Largely centered in the present-day North Waziristan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and somewhat also in the present-day Federally Administered Tribal Areas, 33 photographs follow the marching troops throughout the hills, valleys and mountain passes of the “North West Frontier”. Some now historic bridges, a charming village, one immense fort, and 9 views of various British military camps, further provide a primary source account of the campaign and the vast terrain covered.

The albums contain several scenes photographed by Tundan during the Razmak Column’s initial 76-mile march, proceeding north through mountains and valleys, from Razmak to Bannu in October/November 1936, in a demonstration of power and resolve of the British Raj.In late October 1936, in order to re-assert the perception of control over the region, the government of India decided to move troops through the Khaisora Valley, by marching a column from the garrison at Razmak to the east, to join up at the village of Bichhe Kashkai with a column from the Bannu Brigade, which would advance from the south from Mirali. By this stage of British rule in India, there were strict rules governing such expeditions on the North West Frontier. As the purpose of the expedition was only as a demonstration of resolve and power, the decision was made that no offensive action would be taken against the tribesmen, unless troops were fired upon first. After only three days, the Razmak column, known as Razcol, came under fire, while traversing a narrow valley about 10 miles (16 km) short of Bichhe Kashkai. Intense fighting ensued as the column had to fight its way through to the village, while the two Indian battalions that made up Tocol from Mirali ran into even tougher opposition and were delayed until the following day. The supply situation was desperate and casualties numbered around 100, so it was decided to withdraw both columns back to Mirali. This was achieved, but the picquets and rearguard were heavily engaged on numerous occasions before they arrived.The southernmost marching scenes were actually taken near Razani, some of which were taken in the Razani valleys, and one of which is captioned “Razani corner” in reference to a hairpin turn on the long road. [A military camp was established in this area.] From there, the troops would have quickly reached Razmak, where they are seen marching in formation.The troops were large in numbers. Tundan’s photographs, which are indeed enlightening and a superb guide to the region, seem to suggest that from Razmak to Idak, they may have been split into two marches. In order for Tundan to photograph both, they would have been at least a few days apart. The principal route would have been Razmak – Asad Khel (Damdil Camp) – Kurram Pass – Idak. A secondary route further into the hills and closer to the frontier, would have been Razmak – Tut Narai – Boya Kalay – Miran Shan – Idak.According to a caption, the secondary route troops and photographer also went to Saidgi, which may be referring to the Zoi Saidgi village, which is situated in the Shawal valley, some 40-50 miles west of Razmak, and just northwest of Razin.A military camp was established at Duncans [Duncan’s Piquet], where a photograph captures military officers standing around a table for tiffin, possibly also engaged in strategic discussion. Situated just 10 km north of Razmak, at an elevation of 2,179 metres, the piquet sits on the high point at the north of the Razmak Plateau, a strategically important feature. Razmak became the most important garrison in Waziristan. [The piquet remains in use today as a police post.]Further north, a photograph shows the expanse of the K.R.R.C. [King’s Royal Rifle Corps] camp at Damdil, sometimes seen as Damodil, sprawling the base of a hill, and both sides of the road. Very near to Damdil, another image shows the marching men near Asadkhel [Asad Khel].The long march continued through the Kurram valleys, across Kurram pass, the high elevation roads having stout stone barriers and retaining walls where necessary to prevent slipping down the steep ridges. The valley, then part of the Peshawar Division of the North-West Frontier Province, comprised most or all of the Kurram Agency which was declared as such in 1892 under British rule. It is a naturally well irrigated and fertile region.A marching regiment crosses Tal [Thal] bridge over the Kurram river; the four men leading the parade carry a large banner. The river’s water level being very low and the dust filling the air indicate a dry season. Other scenes in the same region are simply captioned “Tal Valley”. [There was is fort at Thal, guarding the strategically vital Kurram valley, which at the outbreak of the 3rd Afghan War in 1919, came under siege but was quickly relieved.]“At Totnarai” is the caption on a scene where the men are marching an ascent through a beautiful hilly region without any indication of roadways. [Tut Narai is a pass in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.]Armies of men and horses passing the charming village of Boya, which is partly fortified against the elements with a stone wall to one side. The town is a maze of inter-connected mud walled dwellings, built in two sections with a mound at its center where sits a mud dome, possibly a shrine. On the outskirts there are agricultural fields and a cemetery. Close-up images capture a cavalry convoy of both British and Indian regiments crossing Boya River together, as well as one lorrie. Boya [Boya kalay] is approximately 30 km north of Razmak, southeast of Miran Shan, and east of Bannu.The “column camp at Idak” is a large settlement with innumerable soldiers and their horses, being supplied by motor transport vehicles. This camp appears to have been setup directly beside a natural coal deposit.The column travelling east to Bannu after departing from Idak, are shown in a stellar picturesque photograph on the Shinki Bridge (image shown above), crossing the Tochi River (a.k.a. Gambila River). The bridge is situated east of Mir Ali on the road connecting Miranshah and Bannu.Finally, an excellent photograph shows the troops arriving at Bannu, present-day capital of the Bannu Division, located on the Kurram River in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Bannu was used as the base of operations for all punitive expeditions undertaken by detachments of the British Indian Army to the Tochi Valley and the Waziristan frontier. A military road led from the town of Bannu toward Dera Ismail Khan; this road was built by military engineers under the supervision of a Bannu engineer, Ram N. Mullick.
Arrival at Saidgi:
Caption from above image: K.R.R.C. [King’s Royal Rifle Corps]:
Arrival at Bannu:

Again, the photographs indicate that two separate columns marched north to reach Kohat. Those who had gone east from Idak to Bannu, would travel further east to Latambar Pass before going north to Kohat. The others would go directly from Idak to Datta Khel, Thal, then Kohat.
Of the column heading directly north from Idak directly to Thal, at least two scenes are captured in the Spinchilla Valley [Spinchilla Pass] which lies between Datta Khel and Miranshah, where only fifteen years earlier in 1921 a fierce battle had taken place. There are several views of Datakhel Valley, southwest of Thal, including a spectacular view of the fort, a solid and imposing edifice with the Imperial British flag flying from its integrated lookout tower. Datakhel Fort [Datta Khel] was the nearest post to the Faqir of Ipi’s headquarters at Gorwekht. It sustained many sieges in the course of its history. Two supply trucks are present and a couple dozen men are roaming outside. Notice a courtyard with what appears to be soccer net for some leisure time. A long-range photograph also shows the Razmak Column camp situated a few hundred yards from the fort. Some areas of the valley appear arid while others lush and fertile, where agriculture was prominent. [The town of Datta Khel is located around 41 km south west of Miran Shan and 21 km of Boya.]Photographing the troops who went to Bannu, captures them in the Latamber Pass. Another striking image shows them exiting a mountain tunnel, possibly in this region. [Latambar is an important town in the district of Karak, located 29 kilometres to the east of Bannu.] A camp image is captioned as “K.R.R. Camp at Banda” [King’s Royal Rifle], which is Banda Daud Shash, the headquarter of the tehsil by the same name, located in Karak District, immediately north of Latambar. Slightly farther north, in the vast and desolate Lachi Pass [Lachi Kandoa], hundreds of men look like ants marching along in perfect symmetry on a winding road, as the photographer gets a birds-eye view from a hilltop. One captain leads the formation, and a few horses carrying supplies take up the rear. [There is a locality/town in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situated nearby to Hindki Banda in the Kohat District, comprising some 24,000 residents today.]
A large number of troops from one of the aforementioned columns are photographed entering a rest camp at Kohat, which incidentally, is gated. This fascinating image inadvertently also provides a glimpse into civilian life. Men in traditional costume employ horse-drawn carriages and heavily laden mules for conveyance of goods and passengers. Irrigation ditches flank the dirt road, which bears a white mile marker. [Kohat in present-day is the capital of the Kohat District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and regarded as a centre of the Bangash tribe of Pashtuns, who have lived in the region since the late 15th century.]
Latambar Pass:
Crossing Tunnel:
Arriving at Kohat:

As the political and social unrest increased with intensity, and revolts increased in frequency in 1937, more troops were brought in for enforcement and defence. The album’s images reveal the growth of the camps, the need for supply caravans, and the disbursement of troops beyond principal routes and into mountainous tribal regions of the Northwest Frontier.The Razmak column, known as Razcol, had begun the march without incident, but after three days came under fire while traversing a narrow valley about 10 miles (16 km) short of Bichhe Kashkai. Intense fighting ensued as the column had to fight its way through to the village, while the two Indian battalions that made up Tocol from Mirali ran into even tougher opposition and were delayed until the following day. The supply situation was desperate and casualties numbered around 100, so it was decided to withdraw both columns back to Mirali. This was achieved, but the picquets and rearguard were heavily engaged on numerous occasions before they arrived.The outcome of the expedition was the reverse of the desired outcome, as, instead of demonstrating government resolve and strength, it had in fact highlighted their weakness, and Mirzali Khan’s support rose dramatically. For the next year, trouble and insurrection spread throughout Waziristan, as Wazirs, Dawars, Mahsuds, Bettanis, and even Afghans from across the border rallied to support the Mirzali Khan’s cause.By April 1937, four extra brigades had been brought in to reinforce the garrisons at Razmak, Bannu and Wanna, and at the height of the campaign in 1937, some 60,000 regular and irregular troops were employed by the British in an effort to bring to battle an estimated 4,000 hostile tribesmen.While the British attempted to stamp out the insurrection by drawing the tribesmen into decisive engagement, Mirzali Khan remained at large (and indeed was never caught), and the tribesmen generally managed to avoid being drawn into battle using guerrilla tactics of ambush in order to keep the initiative. In doing so, they inflicted considerable casualties upon the British and Indian troops. An example of this occurred in April 1937, when a convoy from Wanna was ambushed in the Shahur Tangi defile. Using captured mountain guns and modern rifles, the vehicles were destroyed and the exits blocked, and in the ensuing battle seven officers and 45 men were killed, while another 47 were wounded. The tribesmen did not have everything their way, however, as the British began quartering the troubled areas and destroying hostile villages with both air and ground forces.By December 1937, the Mirzali Khan’s support began to wane and following this, the decision was made to withdraw most of the additional brigades that had been brought up to bolster the garrisons at Razmak, Bannu and Wanna, as it was decided that their presence would only serve to inflame the situation. Trouble flared up again in 1938-39, although to a much lesser extent. On 23 July 1938, a tribal force launched an attack on the town of Bannu, killing up to 200 civilians and damaging a considerable amount of property. As a result of this, British prestige was again weakened and support for Mirzali Khan grew once again. After 1939, the North West Frontier quieted down, and remained reasonably peaceful. Apart from the occasional raid on a village or attack on a garrison, things would remain this way until the end of British rule in 1947.
In the present albums, Tundan’s photographs show a sizeable camp at Muhammad Khel, roughly 40 km west of Idak, and situated on the Tochi river. Here, the formation of tents creates a perimeter to deter invaders. Inside the compound, we see 15 large military supply trucks which would travel throughout the frontier regions in convoys. Large canvas barriers are perched on a hillside, for practice, lookout operations, or both.Khushalgarh camp, also photographed, spans an open plain with perfectly aligned white dwelling tents as well as larger tents typically for mess, medical and the like. Two large permanent buildings are seen in the distance. One of the albums begins with a lovely image of the Khushalgarh Bridge [Khushal Garh Bridge], which crosses the Indus river near the small village of Khushalgarh, just southeast of Kohat. It is a broad gauge bridge and was completed in 1907 as part of the Khushalgarh-Kohat-Thal Railway. Other views show the troops crossing Khushalgarh Bridge, and marching beyond, up an incline. [Kushalgarh is a village in the Kohat District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is the point at which the Indus River was bridged to permit the extension of the railway from Rawalpindi to the Miranzai and Kurram valleys.]One particularly fascinating, and indeed very scarce photograph is a scene of a horse caravan which demonstrates the monumental task of transporting supplies for the sixty-thousand soldiers dispersed throughout the land. Each hard-working beast is paired with another and harnessed to pull a carriage heavily laden with tents and everything needed for the men to do their jobs. Guided by a scant few men, one having a motorcycle, onward and very much upward they trod through the winding hill roads.

The “Razman Column” was a remarkable sight to behold, and very well captured in photographs by Tundan, as the thousands upon thousands of British and Indian troops marched through the passes and valleys, crossed bridges, and erected encampments in the Waziristan.“Razmak Camp” in Waziristan became famously known as “Chota London” during the pre-independence period. The British Army transformed Razmak into a beautiful hamlet with houses resembling those in the countryside of England, Razmak being considered a ‘heaven on earth’.

North West Frontier Revolt of 1936-37In 1936, a revolt broke out in Waziristan, a mountainous region inhabited by warlike tribes, an area that is today part of Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province. A Muslim holy man, Mirza Ali Khan – the Faqir of Ipi [Faqeer of Ipi], led the Wazirs against the occupying British-Indian regime for many years, and the revolt remains one of the greatest twentieth-century South Asian insurgencies.After the demise of Haji Saheb Taurangzai and Mullah Powinds, the lone un-purchaseable mujahid left in the field was Faqir Ipi. Ipi, the village of the legendary freedom fighter Faqir of Ipi, is sited between Mir Ali and Thall in North Waziristan.A fakir (fäker`, fa`k?r), [Arab.,=poverty], in Islam, is usually an initiate in a Sufi order. The title fakir is borne with the understanding that poverty is the need to be in relation to God. This term, along with its Persian equivalent, dervish, was extended in Western usage to Indian ascetics and yogis, and incorrectly used generally for itinerant magicians and wonder-workers. The term has come to be specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India. There were two classes of these Indian Fakirs, the religious orders, and the nomad rogues who infest the country. The ascetic orders resemble the Franciscans of Christianity. The bulk lead really excellent lives in monasteries, which are centres of education and poor-relief; while others go out to visit the poor as Gurus or teachers. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the villagers.In 1936, a Tori Khel Wazir named Mira Ali Khan began an anti-government campaign in Waziristan that continually menaced the British until their departure from India in 1947. More commonly known as the Faqir of Ipi, he first gained British attention when he tried to disrupt a trial in Bannu. The British had little success in capturing or killing important fugitives in Waziristan. The Mullah Powindah and the Faqir of Ipi eluded British pursuit for decades. The Pashtun tenant of melmastia, the complex terrain of Waziristan, and their religious status helped ensured Powindah and the Faqir never were killed or captured by the British.The Faqir of Ipi’s anti-government rhetoric prompted a two column British show of force through northern Waziristan. In contrast to other punitive expeditions, the British operated under restrictive rules of engagement which forbade troops to shoot until shot at. Every military rule for effective Frontier warfare was in conflict with political rules – all of which the tribesmen knew very well and took every advantage.During the 1933-37 operations by the British against the Fakir of Ipi in North Waziristan, the Mahsuds from South Waziristan, Ahmed Wazirs from Bannu, Bhittanis and Bakka Khels from Bannu FR, operated under Ipi’s flag. The show of force, intended to demonstrate British strength, ended in disaster as tribesmen continually attacked the columns and inflicted heavy casualties. The failure of the columns elevated the Faqir of Ipi’s prestige and incited the Wazirs, Mahsuds, Bhittanis, and even Afghans across the border to rally to his cause. The British responded by sending four more brigades to Razmak in 1937. Though the British hoped to catch the Faqir of Ipi in a fixed engagement, he never made a stand and eluded capture. In April 1937, tribesmen ambushed a British convoy traveling to Wana and killed or wounded 92 officers and soldiers.The challenges of the elusive enemy and broken terrain in Waziristan forced the British to operate in a very deliberate and set piece manner that ultimately inhibited flexibility and initiative. The British responded to their failure to subdue the Faqir of Ipi by destroying villages but achieved nothing conclusive. By late 1937, the heavy destruction eventually dampened support for the Faqir. The British consequently decided that a large presence inside Waziristan was counterproductive and reduced troop levels to pre-crisis levels. Fighting flared up again in 1938-9, albeit on a smaller scale. The Faqir managed to raid Bannu, at further expense to British prestige.


Title: The British Trans-Greenland Expedition, 1934.

Author: LINDSAY, Martin.
Publisher: London: Royal Geographical Society, 1935.    Precedes Book.
Item is in ORIGINAL Condition, With Blue Wrappers – As Published – in Two Issues, Complete with All the Ads!!!

Notes & Condition: This is a fascinating expedition report published the same year as his all-important book, titled; Sledge: The British Trans-Greenland Expedition. First reveal of this dramatic account, profusely illustrated, including a large fold out colour map, a distance log and a panoramic photographic plate. Replete with interesting details on the preparation of the expedition and its daily routine, it remains a lively account written in a direct style, of one of the longest self-supporting dog-sledge expeditions. In 1934 Martin Lindsay, gold medallist of the French Geographical Society, and his gallant party of three men made a record Arctic journey of 1,200 miles, traversing without injury, the Greenland ice-cap, and eventually after many trials and tribulations, reaching the coast at the end of 103 days of sledging, with two and a half days of food left in hand.

37 pages (published in two complete issues), including sketch maps. Plus numerous photographic plates, one of which is a large fold-out panoramic view measuring 10 x 26 inches (25.5 x 66cm); and a large fold-out colour map measuring approximately 16 x 13 inches (40.5 x 33cm). Two complete monthly issues of the Geographical Journal, containing the above described narrative, as published in two parts. Original condition with blue wrappers, titles to front, and containing all the ads. Seldom found in such good and original condition.

Substantial Primary Reveal – RECORD-BREAKING Greenland Sledge Crossing – With Large Colour Map and Spectacular Photographic Plates, Including a Panorama

1939 Sanderson – DUTCH GUINANA – Waterfalls of British Guiana – 6

Title: A Journey in Dutch Guiana.

Author: Ivan Sanderson.
Publisher: London: Royal Geographical Society, 1939.
Item is in ORIGINAL Condition, With Blue Wrappers – As Issued, Complete with All the Ads!!!

Notes & Condition: The author spent one year in Dutch Guiana on a zoological expedition to collect specimens and data for the British Museum (Natural History). The objectives were threefold, being the planning and constructing of a permanent outfit of gear for efficient travel in tropical and temperate climates, the testing of original field methods in comparison with established methods and the surveying of the local fauna.

Sanderson’s first four months were spent in Paramaribo, the port of arrival and capital of Dutch Guiana, the next three months penetrating the jungle country heading up the great rivers and the last three devoted to an investigation of the savannah belt and its forest areas. He provides a detailed account of the area’s varied geography; of Paramaribo and environs, recounting the party’s purchase of samples of the area’s live animals (at one point they had no less than 172 live animals living in their quarters); the inhabitants of Suriname – a place unlike any other, he suggests: “there is probably no other place in the world where large bodies of so many racial and sub-racial types live side by side.” Depictions of inhabitants include the “negroes;” the Caucasics – that is, the true Hollanders as well as the English and the Americans; the British Indians; the Jukas or “Boschnegers;” the Mongolians and the Surinaamers. Also features descriptions of the coastal area, Sanderson’s excursions up the Coppename river, the Para river, notes on results and an appendix comprising a list of native place names given in the official Dutch spelling.

Sanderson published three classics of nature writing: Animal Treasure (a report of an expedition to the jungles of then-British West Africa); Caribbean Treasure (an account of an expedition to Trinidad, Haiti, and Dutch Guyana (now Suriname), begun in late 1936 and ending in late 1938); and Living Treasure (an account of an expedition to Jamaica, the British Honduras (now Belize) and the Yucatan). Illustrated with Sanderson’s drawings, they are well-written and humorous accounts of his scientific expeditions, and anticipate later works by writer-naturalists such as Gerald Durrell.

Also included in this issue is a succinct report by Paul Zahl, entitled “Two Waterfalls in British Guiana”. The narrative is 2 pages, including an in-text sketch map and 2 specatcular photographic plates showing fall on the Uitshi river and Hunlen Falls.

Two reports in one complete issue of the Royal Geographical Society, altogether 25 pages, including 2 in-text sketch maps. Plus photographic plates. Original condition with blue wrappers, titles to front, and containing all the ads. This is a complete issue, seldom found in such good and original condition.