Rare Early Treatise Nile Palestrina Mosaic Rosetta Stone Monuments of Ptolemaic Egypt Reveals Ancient Ways of Life
Title: Osservazioni sul Musaico di Palestrina. [Observations on the Palestrina Mosaic]
Rome: Salviucci, 1858. Large Folio, measuring 56cm x 39cm (15.5 inches x 22 inches). Original printed wrappers. Text is in Italian. , 72,  pages, plus 7 engraved plates, 5 of which are double-page. Wrappers chipped at extremities, mild foxing, otherwise in very good condition. Scarce valuable resource on Ptolemaic Egypt.
A scarce account, rarely seen in original wrappers, Pieralisi’s treatise is a noteworthy study of the late Hellenistic Nile Mosaic of Palestrina, which depicts Ptolemaic Egypt and dates to circa 100 B.C. The author, Don Sante Pieralisi, was a librarian of the Barberini Library in Rome with access to many early scholars’ works. The mosaic’s history and construction are described, followed by a presentation of some early and compelling theories of interpretation and dating, by such scholars as Barthelemy, Antonio Nibby, Carlo Fea, and Cassiano dal Pozzo (secretary to Francesco Barberini who was largely responsible for its restoration). Much history of ancient Egyptian life can be drawn from the mosaic scenes, including the Nile’s yearly flooding, Nubian hunters, mythical or extinct creatures, Egyptian-Roman trade, contrasts between peasant dwellings and palatial life, the rise of magnificent walled cities guarded by Egyptian soldiers, etc. Remarkable engravings reproduce details of the historic masterpiece.
The celebrated Nile mosaic dates to circa 100 B.C. during rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, the last dynasty of Ancient Egypt (305 BC to 30 BC) and forms an interesting connections between ancient Egyptian and Roman civilizations, and the its essence of its design has, for several centuries, been the center of much speculation. Shortly after publication, the observations by Don Sante Pieralisi accompanied the mosaic on display in the Palazzo Barberini, where it had been placed by Prince Barberini after restoration mid-seventeenth century.
Equally interesting is a chapter dedicated to the Rosetta Stone, the ancient stele decree issued at Memphis, also during the Ptolemaic dynasty. The author relates details of the French expedition to Egypt which uncovered it in 1799, and the controversial repossession and transfer to England following the Capitulation of Alexandria. He further presents important details of the temples of Apis, Serapis, and Venus at Memphis, other hidden tombs of Memphis, and pertinent Egyptian rulers.
The Nile Mosaic of Palestrina (ancient Praeneste) is the earliest Roman depiction of Nilotic scenes, and one of the earliest large mosaics preserved from the classical world. The interpretation of the mosaic is still debated; exotic ornamentation, topographical representation of the Nile, and religious allegory connected with Isis and Osiris being some of the suggestions. There is scarcely any relic of ancient art which has been so much the subject of antiquarian controversy.
* Father Kircher considered its subject to express the vicissitudes of fortune. * Cardinal de Polignac thought it represented the voyage of Alexander to the oracle of Jupiter Ammon. * Cecconi and Volpi believed that it illustrated the history of Sylla. * Montfauçon regarded it as a representation of the course of the Nile. * Winckelmann saw it as the meeting of Helen and Menelaus in Egypt. * Chapuy saw the embarkation of Egyptian grain for Rome. * The Abbé Barthélemy viewed it as the voyage of Hadrian to Elephantina. * The Abbé Fea interpreted it as the conquest of Egypt by Augustus.
A consensus on the dating of the work is slowly emerging. Paul G. P. Meyboom suggests a date shortly before the reign of Sulla (ca. 100 BC) and treats the mosaic as an early evidence for the spread of Egyptian cults in Italy, where Isis was syncretized with Fortuna. He believes Nilotic scenes were introduced in Rome by ‘Demetrius the Topographer’, a Greek artist from Ptolemaic Egypt active circa 165 BC.
Author: KEMP, Stanley; WORDIE, J. M. Publisher: London: Royal Geographical Society, 1933. Item is in ORIGINAL Condition, With Blue Wrappers – As Issued, Complete with All the Ads!!!
Notes & Condition: Examination of Antarctic iceberg variation, particularly the properties of the morainic and bottle-green types and those icebergs outstanding because of their enormous size. Kemp and Wordie attempt to establish the origin of the largest icebergs, note their locations and compare them with earlier recordings from the logs of the Erebus,Challenger, Nimrod and Terra Nova. Close observation of the black and green icebergs around the South Sandwich Islands and Elephant Island engenders a rudimentary system of classification. Today, the system is more sophisticated, icebergs classified according to size (Growler, Bergy Bit etc), form (tabular and non tabular) and shape (Dry Dock, Blocky, Pinnacle etc) and monitoring is a world wide concern, undertaken primarily by the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) which names and tracks all Antarctic icebergs.
7 pages, including in-text sketch map. Plus black and white photographic plates. Original condition with blue wrappers, titles to front, and containing all the ads. This is a complete issue, seldom found in such good and original condition.
Rare Original Albumen Photograph Japanese Sericulture Sorting Cocoons Feeding Silkworms 1890s Japan, circa 1890s. Original numbered albumen photograph taken by an unidentified Japanese photographer, titled “Feeding Silk Worrms” (sic), showing four females doing the task and one man sorting cocoons in a basket. Photograph measures approximately 26 cm x 20,5 cm. Very faint age-toning, soft crease to one corner, otherwise in very good and original condition, beautifully hand coloured and nicely preserved. Suitable for framing.Silkworms are being fed mulberry leaves, their only food source in their natural habitat, and critical for their survival. They were to be fed as much as possible before they shed their skins. During the month between hatching and spinning, the cocoons needed to be fed every few hours, day and night. As seen in the photograph, silkworms were reared in rectangular mats made of rush or bamboo. The mats were typically stacked on a wooden rack.Producing silk was a lengthy, complex process. The men took responsibility for the mulberry trees, growing the only food silkworms eat, and the women were responsible for the critical task of feeding the leaves to the silkworms. Silkworms do not spin cocoons on demand; timing and temperature have to be handled carefully. If properly coddled with ideal conditions and consistent feeding, the worms eventually spin cocoons for several days, each cocoon made up of a strand of silk several thousand feet long. Over two thousand silkworms are needed to produce one pound of silk.
The fully domesticated Bombyx mori moth, the dominant silkworm variety used for the finest silk textiles today is the same species used in silk production thousands of years ago. The process of silk production begins when the female silk Bombyx mori moths lay their eggs. Each one will lay from 200 to 500 eggs.
Japanese Mushrooms Medicinal Plants From the Colossal Botanical Treatise “Honzo Zufu” By Iwasaki Tsunemasa Spectacular Colour Illustrations Early 1900s
Iwasaki Tsunemasa (Kan-en) Title: Honzo Zufu [Illustrated Manual of Medicinal Plants / Iconographia Plantarum]Japan, early 1900s. A most pleasing and highly illustrative Japanese monograph on mushrooms, being a copy of the work on medicinal mushrooms, from the multi-volume compendium of Iwasaki Tsunemasa titled Honzo Zufu. 8vo. 54 pages, offset colour-printed facsimile. Traditional karitoji paper binding string-stitched at spine, fukurotoji style (“bound-pocket” with folded leafs bound into spine), and opening from left to right. Ivory paper covers, title label, official red ink stamp to the first text leaf. All text is in Japanese. Volume measures approximately 17,5 x 26 cm. Very good condition, a visually striking historic work.Only six original sets of his work exist in Japan. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, also possesses a complete set of the original manuscript volumes with hand-coloured woodblock print illustrations; else this monumental work is exceedingly scarce.
Honzo Zufu or “Illustrated Manual of Medicinal Plants” is the work of Tsunemasa Iwasaki (1786-1842), a Japanese botanist, zoologist and entomologist who compiled and published the valuable compendium in 93 volumes between 1830 and 1844. Honzo Zufu comprises illustrations and descriptions of some 2,920 plants, chiefly of Japanese origin. A classic work of botanical classification, begun in woodcut, then continued in manuscript form during the mid-19th century, it was finally edited by Shirai and published in final form, printed by colour woodblock with descriptions of species in Japanese, and accompanied by a Japanese-Latin index, in 1920-22.In 1828 the first volumes of Honzo Zufu were printed, with uncolored woodcut prints. Beginning in 1829, he issued manuscript volumes of a vastly expanded work under the same title, beautifully illustrated by watercolour paintings. Tsunemasa Iwasaki continued to work diligently, printing and distributing new volumes at the rate of about four volumes per year until the work was finished. A complete set is said to have been presented and dedicated to the Shogun in 1844, signaling its completion on a most honourable manner.Iwasaki was better known as Kan-en, his sobriquet which translates literally to “irrigation of a garden for plants”. He was a samurai in the service of the Tokugawa Shogunate, a born naturalist, and had access to about 150 illustrated volumes of Japanese botanical books. In 1826 at Edo, he had also become acquainted with the German physician and botanist Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (1796-1866) who achieved prominence by his studies of Japanese flora and fauna and the introduction of Western medicine in Japan. He was the father of the first female Japanese doctor educated in Western medicine, Kusumoto Ine.
Before embarking on what would become nothing short of a Japanese botanical encyclopaedia, Iwasaki had written an 8-volume commentary on “Kyuko Honzo” which was finished in 1817, but was never published. Following that, he produced an excellent work on plant propagation, which alone would place him among the leaders in the horticultural history of Japan.Iwasaki Tsunemasa (Kan-en) also wrote:
• Buko-sanbutsu-shi a work on the natural history of the Edo district including botany zoology and entomology as lists.
• Honzo Sen’yo (Essentials to the study of plants and animals). Unpublished. Two volumes, includes insects and gives some Dutch names. Some editions include the Binomial nomenclature introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.
• Somoku-sodategusa (Cultivation of Flowering Plants). Two volumes of woodcut illustrations (1818). Includes 13 Ukiyo-e of insects which cause plant damage. One was Papilio xuthus which fed on fragrant citrus. He described the larva with its osmeterium.
Shunshô and Shigemasa Cultivating Silk Worms And 12 Stages of Silk Production Japanese Colour Woodblock Prints Rare Eighteenth Century Tutorial
Kitao Shigemasa (1739-1820) and Katsukawa Shunshô (1725-1792)
Kaiko yashinaigusa (Cultivation of Silk Worms)
A complete series of 12 Edo or Tokugawa Period Chuban Japanese Woodblock Prints on sericulture (silk production), bound in book form and first produced in 1772 (Meiwa 9/An’ei 1) by Kitao Shigemasa. Designed collaboratively with Katsukawa Shunsho with six prints by Kitao Shigemasa and six by Katsukawa Shunshô. It was reprinted in 1776, 1786, and then later in 1916 (as here).
The prints show the twelve stages of silk production, comprising:
1) Laying eggs on a sheet of paper 2) Picking mulberry leaves to feed larvae 3) Transferring grown silkworms to other bamboo mats and feeding them 4) Re-activating worms after sleep 5) Feeding larvae with mulberry leaves 6) Placing cocoons on trays 7) Arranging male and female moths to lay eggs 8) Silkworm moth flying after hatching cocoon 9) Hand-spinning thread from cocoons in a pan of boiling water 10) Stretching silk floss on wooden posts 11) Spinning silk 12) Weaving silk on loom
The 6 prints by Shunshô are nos. 1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 12 The 6 Prints by Shigemasa are nos. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 chuban tate-e: Image size (23cm x 17cm) – sheet size (30cm x 21cm) Very pleasingly bound in book form with silk cloth covers showing silk moths.
Ukiyo-e artists Shigemasa (1739-1820) and Shunsho (1726-1793) were best known for geisha paintings, haikai (poetry), and shodo (calligraphy). Shigemasa primarily created books, though he did produce separate prints. He may have been a pupil of Nishimura Shigenaga but little else is known about his education. Katsukawa Shunsho, Shigemasa’s collaborator, was “one of the unquestionably great masters of Ukiyo-e, outstanding as painter and print-designer”. A student of Miyagawa Shunsui (also known as Katsukawa), Shunsho founded his own eponymous sub-school.
Kitao Shigemasa “was unusual among ukiyo-e artists because he was self-taught. His family ran a bookshop, and the young Shigemasa probably learnt his skills from studying illustrations in books sold in the family shop. His first works gained recognition during the late 1750s. Extant early works are benizuri-e and yakusha-e, but his principal output is in book illustration, which he practiced throughout his career and which became the speciality of the Kitao school, of which he was the founder…His students included Kitao Masanobu, Keisai Masayoshi (1764-1824) and Kubo Shunman.” (Oxford Art online)
Shigemasa was the eldest son of the bookseller and publisher Suharaya Mohei whose premises were located in Nihonbashi. He was initially self-taught but later became a student of Nishimura Shigenaga (1697-1756). Shigemasa’s early work showed the influence of Suzuki Harunobu (ca. 1725-1770), and he collaborated with Katsukawa Shunsho (1726-1793), first on the series, Silkworm Cultivation (Kaiko yashinai gusa) in ca. 1772, and later on the grand illustrated book, Mirror of Competing Beauties of the Green Houses (Seiro bijin awase sugata) in 1776.
Travels in Malaysia and Indonesia Botanist Report with Photographs Primary Source Rubber Trade Survey With Observations of Tea – Coffee – Tobacco – Cocoa – Rice 1911 Java, Federated Malay States, Ceylon, 1911. Expedition report of botanist Robert Fyffe, 1st Assistant Forestry Officer for the Uganda Botanical, Forestry & Scientific Department, who made a special tour to Java, British Malaya, and the British Colony of Ceylon to examine the production of para rubber in particular, but also other valuable plantation crops, twice signed in manuscript – to the frontis letter and also to final summary leaf. Folio. 46 pages in typescript, plus 73 original photographs mounted to 24 separate leafs throughout the text, Commonwealth foolscap typing paper measuring just under 8″ x 13″. With author’s own annotations throughout. Navy blue cloth boards measuring 8.2″ x 13″ x 1″, titled in gilt to front. Some wear to boards, fading to endpapers, otherwise in very good and original condition, a pleasing primary source report with profuse photographic illustration.
A botanist of Scottish descent, Robert Fyffe was well-respected in his field. He was especially knowledgeable and interested in rubber production, even acquiring a patent for an instrument used in the rubber tapping procedure. By 1920 Fyffe had risen to the position of Chief Forestry Officer at Entebbe. The National Archives holds a collection of his timber specimens from Uganda. He was also Director of the Botanical Gardens at Entebbe from 1907 to 1 April 1917.
Fyffe, then 1st Assistant Forestry Officer, was based at Entebbe in Uganda while the Uganda was a British Protectorate (1894-1962) and forestry fell under British Administration. The present report is addressed to the Chief Forestry officer of the Uganda Forest Service via his Chief Secretary. To develop commercial wealth into the protectorate, a railway was completed in 1903. It did indeed open up considerable commercial opportunities for the colony. Tea, coffee and other commodities could reach the port of Mombasa and then sold on to the rest of the world.
Fyffe’s expedition was contemporary to the early efforts of increasing commerce after the installment of the railway. Being employed by the British government, and seeing the noteworthy expansion of rubber plantations and rapidly increasing trade in Malaysia and Ceylon in particular, it is no surprise that he was selected to voyage abroad to these booming places for a reconnaissance of sorts.
The Federated Malay States (British Malaya) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula – Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang established by the British government in 1896, which lasted until 1946. Fyffe includes Singapore and Penang in this section, although they were then part of the Strait Settlements. [The Straits Settlements were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia, which came under direct British control as a Crown colony on 1 April 1867, however, the declaration gave the colony a considerable degree of self-governance. In 1911, when Fyffe visited the region, the Straits Settlements consisted of Penang, Singapore, Malacca, Dinding, Christmas Island, the Cocos Islands, and the island of Labuan. The colony was dissolved in 1946.] Java, then part of the Dutch East Indies was surely of continued intrigue and desire in Great Britain’s eyes; precisely one hundred years earlier in 1811 the British East India Company invaded the nation. British occupation lasted four years. Ceylon was a British Crown colony, since 1796, and would remain so until 1948.
Having departed from London 30 August 1911, Fyffe spent nearly three months in these regions, primarily to examine and assess the cultivation and processing of rubber , but also to glean information on other commodities such as cocoa, coffee, rice and tea, to compare the quality and value of the same in Uganda and British East Africa. Noting in his introductory letter that he harvested and forwarded “several samples of rubber prepared in Ceylon and the Federated Malay States”, he prepared the present report immediately upon his return, completing and dating it on 29 January 1912, which goes into much detail on the many stages of producing rubber, from planting the seed, to the various means of tapping, pressing and drying, to the final quantity and quality of production.
An invaluable expedition indeed, he returned home to present several potential crops to experiment with in Uganda, based on his observations and gleanings in the islands of East Asia. His hosts were most informative and helpful, generously offering their time and wisdom, even gifting him with a few camphor plants for planting, and access to acquiring coffee plant seeds from Java.
Spending 26 days in the Federated Malay States and the Straits Settlements, Fyffe visits numerous rubber estates where he is highly impressed by the high yield, the health of the trees, efficient smoking methods, and a monumental machine that he believes will be pivotal for the industry as a whole. He also toured coffee and coconut plantations, and visited something rather unusual – a camphor distillery.
Some of the places described include Selangor including an estate in in Klang or Kelang (the royal city and former capital), Perak, the city of Seremban, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur where he spent time in each their botanical gardens, Province Wellesley (in present-day Penang). This section consists of 5 pages in typescript plus 18 photographs on separate leafs within the text.
One of the photographs reveal that he visited the Castlefield Estate, which was situated in or near Klang and produced rubber, existing from 15 June 1906, and was owned by parent company Golden Hope Plantations Ltd which was also established in 1906 and had another subsidiary plantation estate. [The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 29 November 1910, contains an article on the Castlefield’s annual meeting.]
Excerpts from the text:
“I spent twenty-six das in the Federated Malay States and I visited the Botanical Gardens, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, and the Agricultural Station as well as numerous rubber Estates.“
“Most of the rubber is growing between 2° to 4° North of the Equator…. the soil is in a very fine state of division and its physical composition is excellent.”
“In Selangor which is a large planting center rubber thrives exceedingly well and in many instances growth is remarkable. I visited numerous Estates in Selangor and I saw some five year old trees which measured 41″in girth at 3 feet from the base and I was informed that they were first tapped when only 3 years old.”
“I inspected Estates in Perak, Seremban, Wellesley, etc. and with the exception of the rubber seen in Wellesley the growth of young trees on a whole is excellent… many of the older plantations have been planted rather close… close planting, excision of bark, planting in swampy land and exhaustion of the nutrient in the soil must to a certain extent retard the growth… “
“The methods of clearing the jungle, preparing the land and planting are similar to those in Ceylon with the exception that in the Federated Malay States more wide planting is being done. The avenue system of planting 21 x 24 feet apart is in my opinion very good… the rubber is grown entirely without shade. On some Estates the tapping commences when the trees are 16 inches in girth… the tendency at present is to confine tapping operations to below five feet from the base, several kinds of tools are used… The original bark is soft and thick and wound response is rapid… yields are high, as much as 4 pounds of rubber being obtained from a 5 year old tree in a year… ‘Die Back’ and Fomes semiststus occurs in the Federated Malay States… “
“The latex is strained through a fine sieve and coagulation is effected by the addition of acetic acid… the rubber is either hung in an ordinary drying store to dry or it is hung in a smoking chamber for from seven to twenty-one days according to the Estate. Some Managers prefer a dark rubber while others prefer it of a lighter colour, various combustibles are used as fuel, and of these the best are Mangrove wood, Rubber seeds and Cocoanut husks. I was particularly interested in this method of preparation…”
“In Ceylon I saw no one there attempting to smoke the rubber…”
“The best sample of Para rubber exhibited at the international Rubber Exhibition held in London last year was smoked sheet prepared on Sungi Kapar Estate in Selangor, this is one of the Estates I had the pleasure of inspecting, smoking is being widely adopted in the Federated Malay States and just recently Mr. Derry of the Botanical Department, Singapore, perfected a machine for smoking and coagulating the latex and making the sheet rubber with one operation, and it is considered that this method of preparation rubber will soon supersede all other methods.“
“I paid several visits to the Agricultural Station Kuala Lumpur and was much interested in the experiments being carried out there with the cultivation of Coffee, Cocoanuts, various rubbers, etc.”
“I paid several visits to the Botanical Gardens, Singapore, and to Raffles Museum both of which are very interesting and instructive, and I was very much interested in the tapping experiments which were being conducted in the Botanical Gardens.”
“The rubber industry in the Federated Malay States owes much to the able Director of the Gardens for his untiring efforts to stimulate the industry… the country will lose a valuable helper and friend when Dr. Ridley returns, as he informed me… “
“I passed through enormous areas of flat land under rice cultivation in the Krian district, and I visited the Botanical Gardens, Kuala Kansar and Penang, where I saw Rubber experiments being carried out…” End Excerpts.
He mentions Mr. Derry, Assistant Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens in Singapore, with respect to the new and highly praised innovation he had devised [and patented], for smoking and coagulating latex to make sheet rubber in one operation, as witnessed firsthand at the Sungi Kapar estate in Selangor. [Robert Derry of Southport, England, was a botanist in the days of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, whom he was acquainted with as a colleague in the field. When Derry was sent in 1883 to work for the Government Botanist’s Office in Georgetown, British Guiana [Guyana], Hooker questioned his capabilities. Nonetheless, Derry proved himself both knowledgeable and skilled, subsequently being involved in and contributing greatly to the Federated Malay States Experimental Plantations, Straits Settlements Forests, and other government forest departments in the region for at least twenty years. He left his homeland on the ‘Glenogle’ on 7 July 1886, to work for the Forest Department, having officially been appointed to the post of Assistant Superintendant, Malacca on 25 June. Arriving in Penang on 7 August, he stayed with Curtis until 8 September when he proceeded to Malacca to take up charge. In February 1887 he was transferred to Singapore as Acting Assistant Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens in place of Mr. Fox who was taking leave in England. In 1894 there was discussion of closing the Malacca nursery garden and handing over the charge of the forests to the Land Office. Fox was petitioning to retain Derry for a permanent position in Singapore. Mid-1895 he returned to England for a vacation. In February 1896 Derry he was appointed to the charge of the Perak hill gardens, a rather envious post, being stationed on Maxwell’s Hill [Bukit Larut] in a region abundant with mangnificent flora to collect and study. In 1901, Derry was Assistant Superintendent of Forests, Malacca, the became Superintendant of Government Gardens and Plantations for Perak, being based in Taiping. He was also a curator at the Botanic Gardens in Singapore, where he rose to Assistant Superintendent in January 1904. He succeeded Mr. Walter Fox circa 1906. He is also listed among the List of Qualified Jurors, Singapore, published 21 October 1904 in The Straits Settlements Government Gazette. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in London, have in their collections, some letters written by him, and others mentioning his work in East Asia, in the 1880s-1890s.]
He also mentions Henry Nicholas Ridley CMG, MA, FRS, FLS, F.R.H.S. (1855-1956), English botanist, geologist and naturalist who lived much of his life in Singapore, and was instrumental in promoting rubber trees in the Malay Peninsula. [For the fervour with which he pursued it, came to be known as “Mad Ridley”. In 1888 he was appointed Director of Gardens and Forests in the Straits Settlements. Reaching Singapore, he was the first Scientific Director in charge of the Singapore Botanic Gardens and in charge of introducing new plants of economical value. Ridley explored the regions around including Penang and Malacca. In 1894 his post was abolished as the expenditure was found to exceed the revenues obtained. Ridley returned briefly to England but the removal of the post was however objected to by William Turner Thiselton-Dyer and Ridley went back to Selangor to advise on forest reservation. In 1895 he developed a method to tap the sap of the rubber trees for latex without causing serious harm to the trees, thus increasing the efficiency and longevity of the industry. Ridley was also largely responsible for establishing the rubber industry on the Malay peninsula, where he resided for twenty years.]
With 15 days in Java, which incidentally was in a state of rebellion from a century of oppressive Dutch rule, Fyffe was able to examine and assess several types of rubber plants including the famed Brazilian Para, the Ceara rubber, the Mexican rubber and the rubber fig trees. He compares the growth and varying procedures undertaken with each to create the best product from its bounty, and the diseases to contend with.
He travels extensively and further discusses crops of coffee, tea, rice, and tobacco, bringing forth some interesting statistics on production and exports. He visits the Government Tobacco Experimental Garden and one particularly large tobacco estate near Klaten where most plantations seemed to be centered, noting the arduous task of maintaining these crops. At the Botanical Gardens of Buitenzorg he is overtaken by the spectacular variety and exquisite beauty of the flora including an orchid, nothing several plants by name. Naturally, he makes the time to visit the Forest Department, for which he has special praises with respect to their work. Having arrived in Batavia 29 October 1911, he travelled to Buittensorg, Bandoeng, Sourabaya, Malang, Blitar, and Klaten, departing the island on 11 November. This section comprises 15 pages typed reporting, plus 16 photographs on separate leafs at every fourth page.
Excerpts from the text:
“I left Singapore on the 27th October and arrived at Batavia on the 29th…”
“Rubber: The species cultivated in Java are Hevea brazilinsis, Ficus elastica (Rembong), Castilloa elastica and Maniho Glaziovii.”
“Ficus elastica is indigenous to Java… easily propagated from seeds or cuttings… Tapping consists of making oblique cuts all over the tree with a large knife, and the latex is allowed to coagulate on the tree and the rubber is collected as scrap, sometimes it is run through a washing machine and made into crepe of very fine quality but it is generally sold as it is collected on the trees. The habit of sending out adventitous aerial roots together with the difficulty of tapping the trees on conservative lines and the low yield obtained are points which disparage the value of this species.”
“Para, Hevea braziliensis. This species is receiving a fair amount of attention in Java where most of the plantations are young and many have not yet reached the tapping stage… The oldest trees are growing in one of the Experimental Gardens, Buitenzorg, some of these are twenty-six years old… the trees are growing on elevated well drained loam. Tapping experiments are being carried out… the half-herring bone on half of the circumference of the bole and the 1/2 system on two opposite quarters. Wound response is excellent… yield of dry rubber is very satisfactory…latex is coagulated by the addition of acetic acid… 8 per cent which in my opinion is excessive… the coagulum is placed upon a table and rolled with a hand roller… hung in a smoking chamber… for several days… it is of a semi-transparent amber shade.”
“… Castilloa elastica… cultivated in the south of Java to a limited extent… difficulty of extracting latex in any quantity is an objection to its cultivation… by making two vertical channels… the latex is pushed out… by women who use a piece of bamboo… by this method the cost of collection is said to be reduced to 20 (guilder) cents per pound of dry rubber.”
“Coffee is very extensively cultivated and gives employment to a large number of the inhabitants, the quantity exported in 1909 amounted to over 10,000,000 kilos. The species cultivated at the present time is Robusta, Arabian coffee having succumbed to the disease known as Hemilia vastatrix… The Government is doing a great deal of work in connection with this industry… over 100 acres in area consists entirely of coffee… many species and varieties… the principal object is to raise a disease resistant species yielding fruit of good quality… Grafting, cross and self fertilization experiments are conducted with success… worthy of marked attention are Coffea Quillo, C. excelsa and C. robusta.”
“Tea is one of the principal cultivation in Java… I visited one large Tea Estate… about 60,000 acres and a variety of products are cultivated including Tea, Rubber, Rice, Sugar, Bananas, Durian, and other native fruit trees. The tea is cultivated on the southern slopes of Mount Salak which is an inactive volcano. The soil on the mountain slopes is a deep sandy loam rich in humus… The equipment of this Estate is very modern…”
“Rice is one of the staple article of food in Java and it figures largely in the exports, during 1909 over 2000,000,000 kilos were exported. Most of the rice is grown under irrigation and nothing is prettier than the vast areas of terraced rice paddy fields sparkling with water… The Javanese are superior agriculturalists…”
“Tobacco, Nicotiana Tobaccum. I passed through vast areas under tobacco in the environments of Klaten and I visited the Government Tobacco Experimental Garden and one large Estate… The worst pest is Phylloxera which attacks the roots and base of the stem. Inoculation experiments were being carried out during my visit… Caterpillars are troublesome at times and the children are employed to collect and destroy them… Tobacco being an exhausting crop it is necessary to apply manure and cattle manure is best with the addition of artificial phosphatic compounds… The curing barn is a large well ventilated structure the walls of which are built of bamboo and palm leaves… After fermentation the leaves are graded according to size, aroma texture, etc., and are the baled ready for export…”
“There is a very well organised Forest Department which is exploiting the valuable timbers in the primeval forests, afforestating mountain slopes to conserve the water supply and making and preserving forest reserves, and planting large areas with Teak, etc...”
“Botanical Gardens, Buitenzorg. I spent a good deal of time in these world famous Gardens… delightfully situated on the gently undulating ground surrounding the Governor’s Palace… founded in 1817 and many superb specimens of exotic plants…” End Excerpts.
Prior to the aforementioned, Fyffe was in Ceylon for one month, where he toured no less than twenty-six estates. He was warmly welcomed and permitted to observe plants and equipment thoroughly during his travels.
Mostly focused on rubber plantations, he examines all conditions, cultivation processes including results from varying planting distances, methods of tapping, equipment used at various stages, and much more. He also touches upon the production of tea, vanilla cocoa, copra
He witnesses the patented vacuum dryer of German engineer Emil Passburg, for use in drying rubber. [In 1889 Passburg had created a similar apparatus for beer brewers and distilleries to vacuum dry wet grains, as well as root-chips from sugar manufacturers. His system was perfected and patented on 12 January 1904, an apparatus for “Drying solid materials or objects by processes not involving the application of heat by evaporation or sublimation of moisture under reduced pressure, e.g. in a vacuum,” thought it was presented as “a new and useful improvement in processes of drying sugar-loaves.”]
He also mentions dryers made by “Commercial Co. of Colombo” [Colombo Commercial Company, Ltd., one of the oldest engineering companies in the country being founded in 1874, and owner of the Wellakelle estate at Maturata from 1884-1900].
Fyffe arrived 16 September 1911. Among the places visited were Kalutara in the Dumbra valley, the Henerathgoda and its Botanical Garden where the first imported rubber tree was planted in 1876, the Nuwara Eliya district including the famed Hakgala Garden which was established in 1861 for experimental cultivation of the medicinal plant Cinchona and subsequently tea production until 1884 when it was transformed into an exquisite garden, the Peradeniya Botanic Gardens near Kandy, and those at Colombo.
Excerpts from the text:
“My tour was made very instructive and pleasant, in that, the Estate Agents and Managers whom I met were exceedingly courteous and afforded me every facility for inspecting their Estates and factories.”
“Some of the best rubber soils are in the low lands of Kalutara, in the Dumbra valley, on the lower slopes of the Kelani valley and in Ratnapure…”
“Above 1,600 feet, tea forms the principal cultivation. The present year has been one of the almost unprecedented drought… A good deal of rubber has been planted throughout the tea, thus no clearing was necessary… Some Estates have been rather irregularly planted…”
“… after the trees form a mass of roots, the organic and inorganic salts which are necessary for their healthy development, become exhausted and as a result growth is slower, and it becomes necessary to manure…”
“In the Heneratgoda Gardens is to be seen a group of fine old trees, and the largest one measures over 180″ in girth at three feet and it has yielded a large quantity of dry rubber. The veterans represent the original stock introduced from the Amazon valley in 1876. In Kalutara there are some very fine 17 year old trees… one three-stemmed 35 year old has a tapping surface of 200″… In Dumbra valley where the soil is dark friable loam, some 10 years old trees measured over 50″ at three feet.”
“With few exceptions, no shade trees are cultivated with rubber… Grevillea robusta… is planted to supply fuel more than shade…”
“Most of the Estates in Ceylon are periodically manured… One Estate I visited keeps over 300 head of cattle to provide farmyard manure. This Estate is divided into three sections and each section in manured every three years…”
“Various systems of tapping are practices, the half spiral being one which is most generally adopted… The basal V… the inverted V…”
“Bamber’s incision method… being tried in the Peradeniya experimental Gardens as yet little is known regarding this system…”
“On almost every Estate I visited, I noticed trees on which burrs were forming, these in some cases put down to the use of the pricker and to bad tapping generally, but as burrs and fluted stems occur on trees which have never been tapped, tapping cannot be responsible for all the irregular growths…”
“I visited on Estate on which 5,000 trees were being rested, as the renewed bark was not yielding a sufficient quantity of latex to warrant tapping operations being carries on. The trees are over 9 years old and were planted in a tea clearing 10′ x 10′ apart.”
“With few exceptions wound response s rapid and the latex continues to flow for some considerable time. During my observation I noted several trees which yielded copious supplies of chrome and yellow colours. The fact that the latex was coloured may denote that they are distinct species or varieties of Hevea brasiliensis. A botanical examination of the trees might lead to a solution.”
“Collecting cups: These consist of half cocoanut shells, tin, glass, enamel and aluminum cups… glass is preferrable, as they are easily washed and glass does not affect the rubber in the way tin or metal cups do.”
“On some Estates the rubber is rolled into very thin sheets and hung up to dry for a week or more, when it is again put through smooth or fluted rollers… put into the drying store again… Artificial dryers are used on some Estates, those supplied by the Commercial Co. of Colombo and the Emil Passburg vacuum drier are very useful… On one Estate where I saw the Passburg vacuum drier in use the rubber is prepared as follows… made into very thin sheets… placed a few layers thick on wire trays and the trays are put into the Passburg vacuum drier, one drier deals with 160 lbs. per charge and the time required to thoroughly dry the rubber is 1 3/4 hours with a temperature of 175°F, a vacuum of 27″ and a pressure of 5 lbs. per square inch in the heater… There are two of these driers on the Estate… they turn out over 1,200 lbs. of dry rubber per day.”
“The aim of the Ceylon planters is to produce pale blanket crepe rubber… The first grade consists of very pale amber coloured sheets of uniform thickness…”
“A large area is devoted to cocoa cultivation at an elevation of between 1000 and 1800 feet. The best cocoa I saw is in the Central Province, in the Dumbra valley near Matale… The crop harvest in 1910 on an estate of over 900 acres which I visited amounted to 8 1/2 cwts. of cured beans per acre. Some of the trees on this Estate are over 20 years old.”
“The assamica tea flourishes in the low country… but the quality of the leaf is inferior…”
“Copra obtained from the fruits of Cocoa Nucifera. This plant flourishes throughout the low moist country and is especially good near the sea.”
“Vanilla obtained from the pod like capsules of Vanilla planifolia… One of the most important thing is the fertilization of flowers, if this is not done by hand few fruits indeed will develop.”
“Rice, Oryza sativa, is extensively cultivated by the natives… The sleek Water Buffalo is a prominent feature on paddy fields, he draws the small native plough… The crop is harvested by men, women and children…”
“Heneratgoda. The group of old Hevea braziliensis is the principal attraction in these Gardens…”
“Hakgala. These Gardens situated at an elevation of 6,000 feet were opened to test the possibilities of Camphor and Cinchona… not very successful… The collection of herbaceous plants and roses is very fine…”
“The public Gardens at Nuwara Eliya and Colombo are beautifully laid out and contain very fine collections of ornamental flowering and foliage plants… many of the Station Gardens are artistically laid out and during my visit were a mass of multicoloured bloom. This pleasing feature helps to make travel by air very pleasant in Ceylon…” End Excerpts.
After an extensive tour of the finest plantations in Java, British Malaya and Ceylon, Fyffe concludes that development of many valuable products has been superior and innovative in these regions. He recommends that several of these crops be introduce to Uganda for economic advancement.
Excerpts from his conclusion statement:
“From my observations my opinion is that the Para Rubber trees in the Botanical Gardens, Entebbe, compare well with trees in Ceylon and Java, while they are at least one year behind the rubber in the Federated Malay States.”
“I consider that smoked rubber is far superior to unsmoked rubber and I recommend that we give this method a thorough trial…”
“… Tobacco. This valuable narcotic I feel sure can be successfully grown… Kampala is unsuited climatically and the soil is quite different from that on the best tobacco lands in Java… Although I am convinced that excellent tobacco can be grown here… on the slopes of Ruwenzori.”
“Cinchona (Quinine)… on the slopes of Ruwenzori.”
“Camphor. I brought three plants from the Federated Malay States as a beginning… at least an acre should be planted as an experiment.”
“Linseed. This valuable oil yielding plant should grow well in Toro…”
“Vanilla… Sugar… Sugar grown in Java should be a profitable concern and there would be a fairly large demand for refined sugar in B.E.A. [British East Africa] and Uganda. Busoga should be a good sugar growing country.”
“Coffee. I recommend that we procure seeds of the best kinds grown in the experimental Gardens, Java… seeds can be had from the Director of the Botanical Gardens, Buitonzorg [sic].”
“Agriculture generally is of a very high order in the East, and of the countries I visited Java is most intensively cultivated…”
I also wish to express my gratitude for the many kindnesses lavished on me by the Government Officials and others whom I had the pleasure of meeting in Ceylon, Java, and the Federated Malay States and India, and for the readiness with which they afforded me facilities for study and for imparting to me much valuable information regarding economic and botanically interesting products. End Excerpts.
Brief Historical Notes on Rubber in Malaysia
Rubber was introduced by British colonists to Singapore in 1877 via Brazil, Kew Gardens in London and Ceylon. Once established outside its native country, rubber was extensively propagated in the British colonies. Rubber trees were brought to the botanical gardens at Buitenzorg, Java, in 1883. Malaysia had an ideal climate, soil for rubber and plenty of land. Production increased dramatically after the 1890s when there was a huge surge in demand for rubber. By 1898, a rubber plantation had been established in Malaya, with imported Chinese field workers being the dominant work force in rubber production in the early 20th-century. For many years tin and rubber were Malaysia’s primary exports.
Natural rubber was a critical pillar of Malaysia’s export-oriented economy throughout much of the 20th century. Early in that century rubber overtook tin as Malaya’s main export earner and was the dominant component in accounting for variations in export growth. The great Amazon rubber boom ended in 1907, when cheaper rubber from massive plantations in Asia flooded the market. By 1912, the British decided rubber extraction and processing in Brazil was too messy and too expensive. They started plantations in Indonesia.
By the 1930s, Malaysia produced half of the world’s rubber. Many of the Chinese and Indians that live in Malaysia today are descendants of laborers brought to work on the rubber plantations. They helped transform Malaysia into Britain’s richest colony. After independence, many of the plantations were turned over to Malaysian hands and some were converted to palm oil plantations.
Wellesley [present-day Seberang Perai, Penang]
Seberang Perai, a city in the Malaysian state of Penang, was originally named “Province Wellesley” after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, who served as the Governor of Madras and Governor-General of Bengal between 1797 and 1805. The British acquired Province Wellesley, as they subsequently named it, to provide more agricultural land and as a defensive bulwark against any cross-strait invasion of Penang Island from the mainland. Since then, it has become part of Penang, which was made a British crown colony in 1867.
Province Wellesley was administered by a district officer directly under the Lieutenant-Governor (later Resident Councillor) of Penang, who in turn was subordinate to the Governor of the Straits Settlements based in Singapore. With its population increasing during the British colonial era, due to the influx of Malay refugees from Siamese-occupied Kedah, Province Wellesley became the rice bowl of Penang. Other than rice and vegetables, other cash crops, such as sugar, coconut and tapioca, were also cultivated. Due to the abundance of land in Province Wellesley, it became the only area in Penang where rubber and palm oil estates were established as well. Other than agriculture, Province Wellesley also began to serve as Penang’s transportation hub, a role it continues to play to this day.
Additional notes on Fyffe’s botanical career:
• On 3 December 1909 he presented to the Botanical and Forestry Department, samples of the Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Walp. Cowpea, found in Entebbe, including seeds of the following, the native names as given by Mr. Fyffe: Buff seeded: three packages of seeds of Mpendi Kiriya Mugombere, Mpendi Kantinti, and Mpendi Bimogoti, which had been mixed in transit. Black seeded: the Mpendi Luzzige.
• In the same year he discovered a unique form of ‘Asplenium stuhlmannii var laciniata’ iN Entebbe, a plant that typically grows on granite rocks.
• Fyffe appears in the 1910 Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew… Additions received in 1909..” as author of “Reports on Rubber tapping experiments in the Botanic Gardens, Entebbe, Uganda” which was published in London, 1911.
• Fyffe was granted a patent in 1910 for an apparatus that improved the process of tapping and pricking rubber trees. Details were reported in the weekly India-rubber Journal, issued on 11 November 1911, the very same day he was departing the island of Java and proceeding to the Federated Malay States, on his Southeast Asian rubber plantation investigation tour.
• In 1913, Fyffe carried out enumerations of timber and rubber producing trees in and near Budongo, during which time he identified a small shrub called C. vulgare, uncommon to the region.
• In 1916 he procured samples of Solanum benderianum from the Rowenzori mountains [a plant that was still in recent times described as very rare in Uganda, only recorded from the Rwenzori Mts.]
• He is also mentioned with reference to the classification of the plant “runsoriense” in a work titled, “A revision of the African Non-Spiny Clade of Solanum L….”
New Map of the Himalayas – Partially Uncharted Godwin Austen 1884
Title: The Mountain Systems of the Himalaya and Neighbouring Ranges of India.
Author: Godwin-Austen, Lieut.-Col. H.H. Publisher: London: Edward Stanford, 1884. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society.
Notes & Condition: One very large folding colour map by Henry Godwin Austen, measuring approximately 14 x 33 inches (36 x 84cm), plus an altitude chart, measuring approximately 8 x 15 inches (20 x 38cm), accompanied by 5 pages of explanatory text. In its original condition, as issued, contained in a monthly issue of the RGS Proceedings.
As to be expected by the ambitious surveyor and explorer of the great Himalayan Range, Godwin-Austen meticulously dissects the daunting mountain system into sections for a better understanding of the connections and differences between the various ranges. An innovative and astounding scientific undertaking, a foremost concept for the time, this work required the use of photography, topographic study, complex surveying, including observations by Joseph Hooker. Some parts such as regions in Nepal remained unclimbed and uncharted, and are indicated as such on the map, to challenge future mountaineers. A remarkable, seldom seen map, with equally important details of pioneering exploration in the Himalayas!
This is a complete issue of the Royal Geographical Society, published February 1884, in excellent condition, containing the above map and narrative. Item is in original condition, with blue wrappers, as issued, complete with all the ads! We are pleased to combine shipping for multiple items based on size and weight of the parcel.
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen (1834 – 1923), English topographer and geologist, and officer in the British army, he was assigned to several government surveys in North India, especially in the Himalayas. He explored and surveyed the region of the Karakorum around K2, which is also known as Mount Godwin-Austen. In 1910, he was awarded a Founder’s Medal by the Royal Geographical Society: “for geographical discoveries and surveys along the North-eastern frontier of India, especially his pioneer exploring in the Karakoram”. The Karakoram peak K2 in the Himalayas was originally named Mount Godwin-Austen in his honour. The Godwin Austen Glacier was also named for him.
The Himalayas [Sanskrit,=abode of snow], the great Asian mountain system, extending east from the Indus River in Pakistan through India, the Tibet region of China, Nepal, East India, and Bhutan to the southern bend of the Brahmaputra River in S.E. Tibet. For most of its length, the Himalayas comprise two nearly parallel ranges separated by a wide valley in which the Indus and Sutlej rivers flow westward and the Brahmaputra flows eastward. The northern range is called the Trans-Himalayas. The southern range has three parallel zones: the Great Himalayas, the perpetually snow-covered main range in which the highest peaks are found; the Lesser Himalayas; and the southernmost Outer Himalayas. A relatively young and still growing system subject to severe earthquakes, the Himalayas’ main axis was formed c.25 to 70 million years ago as the earth’s crust folded against the northward-moving Indian subcontinent. Some 30 peaks rise to more than 25,000 ft, including Mt. Everest and Kanchenjunga, the world’s highest and third highest peaks.
Three Autographs of Hardy Amies In Volumes From His Personal Library With Bookplate and Signature 1928-1933
Germany, 1928-1933. Three (3) original signatures of Hardy Amies, the couturier for Queen Elizabeth for some thirty-nine years, contained in three books from his personal library, and each also containing his bookplate. 8vo. Three volumes each signed and dated by Amies to front endpaper, very slight wear to boards, otherwise in Very Good condition, signed on crisp, clean leafs.
Sir Edwin Hardy Amies, KCVO (1909-2003), was a British fashion designer, best known for being the dress designer for HM Queen Elizabeth II for thirty-nine years. In the 1930s Amies rose to become one of Britain’s leading couturiers and his salon was one of the few to rival the great dress houses of Paris. After a successful pre-war career as a designer in other people’s fashion houses, Amies opened his own establishment at 14 Savile Row in 1946. In 1950 Amies made several outfits for Elizabeth’s royal tour to Canada (then Princess Elizabeth). He received the award of a Royal Warrant as official dressmaker in 1955. One of his best known creations is the gown he designed in 1977 for Queen Elizabeth’s Silver Jubilee portrait. Knighted in 1989, Amies held the warrant until 1990, when he gave it up so that younger designers could create for the Queen. He was also the couturier for Lady Alice Egerton, who was appointed as lady-in-waiting to the young Princess Elizabeth in 1949, and who would go on to become Woman of the Bedchamber when Elizabeth became queen in 1953.
For three years he travelled and worked in France and Germany; becoming fluent in both countries’ languages. Amies worked for a customs agent and then as an English tutor in Antibes, and later in Bendorf, Germany where in 1928 he acquired one of these volumes for his library. Around the same time, another of the volumes was acquired in a village on the Mosel River. He returned to England in 1930. The third volume is signed by him in 1933 and appears to have been gifted to him by famous Austrian writer Karl Heinrich Waggerl.
Rare Japanese Manuscript Early British Appearance at Edo Japan During Sakoku Isolation Era Foreigners Forbidden Entry
HMS Mariner Survey Expedition With Castaway Otokichi Pre-dating Commodore Perry by Four Years 1849 嘉永二年酉閏四月 暗ヶ利亜舩渡来記 [Kaei Ni-nen Tori-uru Shi-gatsu: Angeria-sen Toraiki. “Record of the Arrival of a Ship from Anglia, Fourth Month of 1849”]
Japan, late Edo period (mid-19th century). Manuscript record of the unexpected arrival of the British HMS Mariner led by Commander Charles Mitchell Mathison in Japan, in 1849, with interest in making surveys around Edo (Tokyo), four years prior to Commodore Perry’s arrival, and during Japan’s period of isolation (Sakoku) during which most foreigners were prohibited entry in to the country and locals prohibited exit; containing also a description of Japanese castaway Otokichi who was on the British vessel, disguised as a Chinese to evade capital punishment, who later assisted Admiral James Stirling in establishing the 1854 Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty. Text is in Japanese. 8vo. 44 pages in manuscript, plus title page, on 23 unpaginated double leaves. Traditional karitoji paper binding string-stitched at spine, fukurotoji style (“bound-pocket” with folded leafs bound into spine), and opening from left to right. Complete in a single volume, measuring approximately 24 x 17 cm. A scant few ink marks to rear leaf margin, indication of some burrowing, unobtrusive to legibility, otherwise in very good condition, beautifully preserved, clean and bright, an exceedingly scarce work.Certainly an assertive manoeuvre, for the British to show up unannounced in the harbour of Edo, Japan was in the state of Sakoku (“locked country”), the isolationist foreign policy of the Tokugawa shogunate under which relations and trade between Japan and other countries were severely limited, and nearly all foreign nationals were barred from entering Japan, while common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country. The long-standing policy had been in place for over two centuries, since 1603, and would last a few more years after the departure of HMS Mariner.It was Commodore Perry in 1853, and his equally brazen arrival with his American Black Ships, that would force the opening of Japan to American trade through a series of treaties called the Convention of Kanagawa, ultimately ending the island’s declaration of Sakoku, and facilitating other trade relations with Western nations.On 14 October, 1854, the first limited Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty was signed by Admiral Sir James Stirling and representatives of the Tokugawa shogunate (Bakufu). Yamamoto Otokichi (1818-1867), who was onboard HMS Mariner disguised as a Chinese interpreter during the ship’s attempted entry in Japan, later played an instrumental role in establishing this treaty, providing Stirling with intel on language and culture during the negotiations.On 26 August 1858, the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce was signed by the Scotsman Lord Elgin and representatives of the Tokugawa shogunate for Japan, after the Harris Treaty was concluded. Britain obtained extraterritorial rights on Japanese with the British Supreme Court for China and Japan, in Shanghai. A British iron paddle schooner named Enpiroru was presented to the Tokugawa administration by Bruce as a present for the Emperor from Queen Victoria.
A scarce compilation of records from the Japanese perspective on a pre-Perry interaction between Bakufu authorities and a British ship, with references to Otokichi.This manuscript collates four Japanese reports of the British ship the HMS Mariner, which arrived in Japan from Shanghai in May of 1849 to make a topographical survey of the area around Edo (modern-day Tokyo), led by Commander Charles Mitchell Mathison, who had entered the Royal Navy on 5 August 1819. The event marks a very early British appearance at Japan, also pre-dating by four years the imposing arrival of Commodore Perry and his American Black ships also intent on making surveys.The first record briefly describes the layout of the Mariner and the aim of its visit to Japan. It also mentions the considerable Japanese language abilities of the Chinese interpreter on board who explained things in a way that is easy to understand, he in fact being the Japanese castaway Yamamoto Otokichi (1818-1867).The second section records foreign ship sightings from daimyo with guardhouses on the Miura Peninsula. [daimto were the most powerful landholding magnates holding the largest sections of land]The third report describes the meeting of Commander Mathison and the Bakufu intendant Egawa Tarozaemon (1801-1855), a dispute over a map of Japan, and Japanese observations of the ship and the crew.The last report is a copy of Isenokami Abe’s (Masahiro Abe: 1819-1857) message to the bugyo (magistrates) and metsuke (censors/inspectors) in which, with HMS Mariner in mind, he expresses concern about the increase in the number of foreign ship arrivals in recent years and the abandoning of the Edict to Repel Foreign Ships. Abe notes that if the edict is enforced again, while there is no illegality on the part of the foreign ships, a dispute could arise, thus cautioning the noble families on the coast to prepare defenses. [Only a few years after the arrival of HMS Mariner, Isenokami would play a major role in the signing of the Convention of Kanagawa, as a result of pressure from the Perry Expedition.] The involvement of Japanese castaway, best remembered simply as Otokichi, adds a particularly fascinating element to this early and already monumental Anglo-Japanese interaction.Otokichi (“Yamamoto Otokichi”, later “John Matthew Ottoson”: 1818-1867), the “Chinese” interpreter mentioned in the first report, was in fact a Japanese sailor from Mihama, Aichi Prefecture.In 1832, at age 14, he served as a crew member on a transport ship, the Hojunmaru, bound for Edo with a cargo of 150 tons of rice. Departing on 11 October, the modest vessel, without mast or rudder, was caught in a storm and blown off-course, drifting for 14 months across the northern Pacific Ocean by its currents, her crew having only desalinated seawater and the rice onboard for sustenance. Inadvertently, the crew had deserted Japan, departing illegally, which was punishable by death. Most of the crew died on the merciless voyage. There were only three survivors to finally reach land, at Cape Alava, the westernmost point of Washington’s Olympic Peninsula, in 1834. The survivors were Iwakichi aged 29, Kyukichi aged 16, and the youngest being Otokichi, then 15.After arriving in North America, Otokichi and the two other castaways were looked after and briefly enslaved by the Makah Indian tribe. They were later handed over to John McLoughlin, the Chief Factor (agent) for the Columbia District at the Hudson’s Bay Company, who sent them to England. McLoughlin envisioned an opportunity to use the castaways to open European trade with Japan. To this end, he sent the trio to London on the “Eagle” with hopes that the British Crown would adopt his plan. They reached London in 1835, probably being the first Japanese to do so since Christopher and Cosmas in the 16th century, before the restrictions of Sakoku were implemented. Alas, the British Government ultimately declined interest, and the castaways were instead dispatched to Macau on board the “General Palmer”, so that they could be returned to their home country, regardless of their possible fate as illegal exiles.At Macau, Otokichi, Kyukichi and Iwakichi were welcomed by Karl Gutzlaff (1803-1851), a German missionary and Chinese translator for the British Government. Having ambitions of evangelizing Japan, Gützlaff took them under his wing, enthusiastically learned the Japanese language from them, and with their help he made a Japanese translation of the Gospel of St. John into Japanese.In 1837 it seemed like an opportunity arose for Otokichi and his countrymen to return home, when the American trader Charles W. King offered to take them back to Japan, again with the hope of establishing trade relations with the country. In July they and four other castaways boarded the “Morrison, bound for Uraga at the entrance of Edo Bay, but the ship was met with cannon fire. They proceeded to Kagoshima, again being met with cannon fire. They abandoned their mission to establish diplomatic contact and sailed to Canton. The castaways resigned themselves to a life in exile.Otokichi and some of the others seem to have worked as translators for the British trade legation and British missionaries. Otokichi is next recorded to have been working for the British trading company Dent & Co. in Shanghai in 1843. He also worked as a crewman on American ships, and helped Japanese castaways return to Japan on board Chinese or Dutch ships, the only ones allowed to visit the country. He also engaged in business on his own behalf.He subsequently joined the crew of HMS Mariner as interpreter for the British members. The Mariner arrived off the coast of Japan in May of 1849 but was kept at bay (quite literally) by Japanese authorities who boarded the ship to question Commander Mathison on the subject of his visit and denied his requests to land. Otokichi, dressed in Chinese clothes and presenting himself as “Lin Ah Tao”, acted as interpreter while pretending to be Chinese to avoid trouble over his unintentional violation in 1832 of the strict ban on Japanese citizens leaving the country. HMS Mariner was not permitted to dock, and returned to China in June.Otokichi later helped Admiral James Stirling establish the 1854 Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty. In September 1854, Otokichi returned to Japan a second time, as a member of Admiral Stirling’s British fleet and now using his British name “John Matthew Ottoson”. The fleet docked at Nagasaki where the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty was negotiated and signed on 14 October. On that occasion, Otokichi met with many Japanese, including Fukuzawa Yukichi. He was apparently offered permission to live in Japan, but he chose to return to his family in Shanghai.He later became a British citizen, and toward the end of his life, Otokichi moved from Shanghai to Singapore, his wife’s native island, where he became the first known Japanese resident of Singapore. The British had compensated him generously for his contribution to the treaty with Japan, and he had done well in business deals in Shanghai. He apparently rented a luxurious colonial house on Orchard Road, which is where he died of tuberculosis at the age of 49, in 1867. Otokichi was buried at the Japanese Cemetery of Singapore. Half of his remains were returned to his hometown of Mihama in Japan on 20 February 2005. Verso:
Nanpo Islands – Ogasawara Anijima, Chichijima, and Hahajima Proposed for Agragarian Settlement Woodcut Hand Coloured Map By Tojo Kindai 1848 Banned by Shogunate During Tempo Reform
Japan’s First Overseas Colony Possessions in the Pacific 14 Years Before Annexation
伊豆七島全圖 附無人島八十嶼圖相武房總海岸圖 [The Complete Map of the Seven Islands of Izu with a Map of the Eighty Uninhabited Islands.]Tojo Kindai, Abe Rekisai, et al.Japan, . Large woodcut watercoloured map to illustrate the remote and mostly uninhabited Nanpo and Ogasawara archipelagos, lying some 1000 kilometers south of Tokyo, of the important and banned map produce jointly by scholar and official Tojo Kindai and Abe Rekisai, from a limited run of 500 maps printed in 1848, for private distribution, not for sale to the public owing to the Tempo reform which oppressed any interest in subject matters concerning Western interests (Hawaiians and westerners were inhabiting the island). Kindai was imprisoned and subsequently exiled from Edo for the publication of the map; Rekisai was a promoter of Japanese settlement of the Bonin islands and it appears that he may have been spared from persecution. Folded and mounted to two striped cardstock boards at two ends for neat storage, also giving it the appearance of a typical Japanese book for concealing the content. Title, legend, placenames, and detailed descriptions, are all in Japanese. Map measures approximately 105 x 76 cm. Some age-toning, title label to boards worn, reinforced to one fold, otherwise in very good condition, beautifully preserved, with lovely colour accents, extensive detail, and retaining a strong impression. A rare surviving woodcut map that was banned by the shogunate.Tojo Kindai (1795-1878) was a Confucian scholar, calligrapher and cartographer active in Edo, where he was born, during the mid-nineteenth century. He studied under Ota Kinjo and Kameda Pengsai, and later served the Fukushima Daimyo. His aim with the production of this map was to illustrate the strategic importance of the Bonin islands, but by doing so, revealed secret information, essentially information about Western civilians and their successful agragarian activites on the islands. Knowledge of western ways was strictly prohibited. He was gaoled for seven months, then exiled from Edo for eight years after producing the map, which centered on the coveted southern islands that would become Japan’s first overseas colony only fourteen years later (still during his lifetime). Ironically, criminals in Edo were often confined on Hachijojima island (in which he clearly took interest) or Miyakejima of the nearby Izu island group, especially political prisoners such as Kindai would have been labeled.[Hachijojima was used as an exile island during the Edo Period, firstly for banished political figures and then for general citizens convicted of various crimes. Still visible today on the west side of the island, are the distinctive “tamaishigaki” round-stone walls built using smooth, round stones that convicts were forced to carry from the beach several kilometers away. They received one onigiri (rice ball) per stone. Convicts were not told the length of their sentences and there were many foiled escape attempts, a crime punishable by death. Hachijojima’s days as a prison island ended after a general amnesty in 1868 during the Meiji Restoration, at which point most islanders decided to move to the mainland. However, the policy of banishment was not officially abolished until 1881.]Abe Rekisai (1805-1870), also known as Abe Yoshito, Abe Tomonoshin, and Hashukuen, born in the Toshima District of Edo, was a Japanese botanist, herbalist and author who published many works, with subjects on horticulture, botany, and even social conflict resolution. In 1856 he published geographic descriptions of Hokkaido where Abe Sho¯nin, his ancestor, twice visited to collect medicinal plants, commissioned by the Shogunate government (Bakufu). A most fascinating map produced twenty years before Japan’s Tokugawa (Edo) shogunate had claimed the Nanpo and Ogasawara archipelagos lying some 1000 kilometers south of Tokyo in 1862, the islands are named, and communication routes between them are clearly indicated. Mountain ranges are also shown, both on and around the islands.The map extends in the north from the heavily forested Izu Peninsula, along Sagami Bay and Tokyo Bay and including the Boso Peninsula, showing access and close proximity to Izu Oshia, Toshima, Niijima, Shikine-jima, Miyake, Kozu-shima, Mikarujima, and the smaller islands in the vicinity. Five sea connections to Shimoda, and some between the islands themselves are drawn. It continues southward to show the volcanic islands of Hachijo-jima and Aogashimas, highlighting in an inset the desirable southern Pacific Ogasawara chain, including Ototojima, Anijima, Chichi, Minamijima, Hahajima, Anejima, Meijima and Imotojima.It was the height of the Tempo reform of 1841-1843 when Kindai first published the map, a highly risky endeavour with the economic and political reform that dealt a sweeping blow to the publishing industry. [The so-called reform intended to address problems in local politics, military, economic, agricultural, financial and religious systems, but they also addressed more broadly the “domestic uneasiness.” The perceived need for change led to the arrest of many prominent political figures and writers.]Upon the woodcut productions in 1843, a period in which only a scant few would have been made for trusted colleagues due to heavy publication censorship, Kindai’s map was banned and diligent scholars began their efforts to secretly transcribe and preserve the invaluable information. The present manuscript map collaborates this gallant and historic pursuit of preserving and carrying forward knowledge and the freedom of learning.Resolute and unflappable, Kindai continued to seek out more information on the subject, and again printed a small number of his map, slightly revised, in 1848. It too, was banned by the shogunate, who undoubtedly gathered and destroyed all copies they could find, a common practice of the day, which yet again inspired and necessitated scholars to become clandestine transcribers of important works.For his map, now produced twice and deemed “an act of political agitation,” Kindai found himself in violation of strict prohibitions against the publication of coastal maps, a rule motivated by security concerns of the isolationists. As such, after printing 500 woodcut copies of the slightly revised version in 1848, again for private distribution, he was discovered, tried in court, sent to a gaol for seven months, and began a criminal sentence that banished him from Edo for eighteen years (Kokushi daijiten.)The present map is an exceedingly scarce limited woodcut print which survived the shogunate’s “ban and destroy” campaign while Kindai sat in the gaol.
An early hand-coloured manuscript map of Japan’s first overseas colony – fourteen years before annexation!The purpose of this map was to showcase the southernmost islands in the greater Nanpo archipelago, situated 1,000 kilometers south – the Ogasawara Islands, also known as the Bonin islands, at the time inhabited by only a handful of settlers from abroad, although a certain Japanese ancestry falsely laid claim to them and was supported by the shogunate. This portion of the map extends from the tiny Mago-shima island to small islands of Meijima and Imotojima, highlighting the important islands of Chichijima, Anijima, and Hahajima in between.Having arrived in 1830, the inhabitants consisted of only 26 individuals (20 Hawaiians, 4 Americans, and 2 Europeans) at the time of producing the present map. Forming the first permanent colony, these were Nathaniel Savory of Bradford in Massachusetts, Alden B. Chapin and Nathaniel Savory of Boston, Richard Millichamp of Devon in England, Matteo Mazzaro of Ragusa/Dubrovnik in the Austrian Empire (now in Croatia), Carl Johnsen of Copenhagen, as well as seven unnamed men and 13 women from the Kingdom of Hawaii.They found the climate suitable for farming and the raising of livestock. Rum was made from cane sugar, and bordellos were opened, sometimes staffed by women kidnapped from other island chains. Whalers and other ships that could not find another friendly port in Japan often visited the Bonins for provision and recreation. Matteo Mazzaro was named Governor of the islanders, and upon his death he was succeeded by Nathaniel Savory.A scant few whalers had reached the islands as early as 1824, but it was in 1827 that Captain F. W. Beechey of HMS Blossom had reached the islands and claimed them as a British possession. A copper plate was removed from the hull of his ship Blossom and left on a beach as a marker of the claim: “HBM Ship Blossom Capt F. W. Beechey took possession of this Group of Islands in the Name of and on the behalf of His Britannic Majesty George the IV on the 14th June 1827.”He also named the island of Chichijima “Peel” after then British Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel. Beechey was also surprised to find two men living on the islands. They remained on the islands after the William left the year before, in 1826. The men were Wittrein and Petersen.In the 1820s, the Japanese also developed increasing interest in the southern islands, despite the shogunate’s seclusion policies. Private publications document the growth of public interest. In his 1823 treatise titled Secret Plan for Unification, Sato Nobuhiro presented probably the most audacious and aggressive scenario for Japan’s expansion via Ogasawara and the Mariana Islands. He suggested a small initial settlement of commoners, gradually increased with strong soldiers from Shikoku to fortify the possession.In the late 1830s, rumors circulated that shogunal magistrate Hagura Kando had been ordered to sail to Ogasawara after a routine visit to the Izu Islands. This rumor appealed particularly to those intellectuals who had dedicated much time to the study of Western learning, such as the famous painter Watanabe Kazan, who in 1837 formally applied to join the expedition. His request was not only denied, he was prosecuted as part of the 1839 purge of Western studies (bansha no goku) and forced to renounce his interest in Ogasawara.This event did not frighten, nor deter private scholar Tojo Kindai (also seen as Tojo Shinko, or Tojo Kinki), who, during the despotic Tempo reform, published in 1843 a large map of the Izu archipelago that connected the Ogasawara Islands to Japan, both graphically and rhetorically. Originally published as a woodblock print, both the first and revised editions of his map were banned by the shogunate. (The present map is a manuscript copy of his original, surely drawn secretly by a scholar who was determined to preserve the invaluable information).Referring to the reports of castaways, some of whom had returned to Japan after spending several years on the islands, Kindai wrote: “Even though the soil was saline and barren like salt, there was a way to break up and reclaim some rich earth. Thus, new land could be cleared by working in [soil] dredged from mountains and creeks. If this is done properly, then [we] can allot housing to commoners, and, following this, the settlement will gradually expand its population. In the tenth year after colonization, the island will produce enough to pay rice and tax. Incorporating the native population [dochaku], this will succeed!” [Izu shichito zenzu 1843]After a shipwrecked Japanese crew had spent a winter in the island settlement before their return to Japan in 1840, it was probably known in Japan that the islands had become home to a community of whalers and settlers. Kindai’s comment suggests the knowledge of agrarian activities having been under way. It was prudent of him to not mention the westerners or their ways. However, he promoted the same to be done by Japanese in an effort to colonize the islands with a Japanese agrarian society dependent on the motherland.The text on Kindai’s map begins with an account of the earliest Japanese contacts with the islands. [Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 (1670) and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpo 3 (1675). The islands were then referred to as Bunin jima (Buninjima), literally “the uninhabited islands”. Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands.]This is followed by a geographical description of the seven Izu islands, which were inhabited by Japanese. Details include land area, population, local produce and major products, as well as identifying samurai barracks, castle towns, and Shinto shrines. These establishments, as well as cities, villages, and station towns, are easily identifiable with the help of the legend. Sea routes to the main island’s coast and principle port cities are well illustrated.The large text block in the center of the map is a detailed description of Ogasawara, and most certainly the matter of highest interest for scholars of the day. The equally prominent and fascinating inset depicts the islands and their general topography, as well as indicating their distance from Hachjojima, the southernmost main Izu island. Izu Oshia, Toshima, Niijima, Shikine-jima, Miyake, Kozu-shima, Mikarujima, Hachijo, Hachijo-kojima, and the volcanic AogashimaClose-up of Hachijo, Hachijo-kojima, and the volcanic Aogashima The three islands of particular interest on the present map are Anijima, Chichijima, and Hahajima.Anijima is an uninhabited island located directly north of Chichijima. Anijima and Chichijima were considered as possible airport sites beginning in the late twentieth century and for several decades, but owing to the numerous valuable, rare, or endangered plant species forming a unique ecosystem in the vicinity of the proposed sites, issues of nature conservation were raised and the projects were denied. An area on the southern region of the island is delineated on the present map, suggesting that already a century ago there were considerations for some type of development.Chichijima, which means “Father Island”, formerly known as Peel Island, is the largest island in the Ogasawara archipelago, spanning approximately 23 square kilometers. The first settlement on the island was established in May 1830 by 36-year-old Massachusetts native Nathaniel Savory along with four other whites and 20 Hawaiian men and women from Oahu. Commodore Perry’s flagship Susquehanna anchored for 3 days in Chichijima’s harbor on 15 June 1853, on the way to his historic visit to Tokyo Bay to open up the country to western trade. Perry also laid claim to the island for the United States for a coaling station for steamships, appointing Nathaniel Savory as an official agent of the US Navy and formed a governing council with Savory as the leader. On behalf of the US government, Perry “purchased” 50 acres from Savory. On January 17, 1862, a Tokugawa Shogunate ship entered a harbor at Chichijima and officially proclaimed Japanese sovereignty over the Ogasawara Islands. Japanese immigrants were introduced from Hachijojima under the direction of the Tokugawa Shogunate. Forty members of the Savory colony were allowed to stay on the island. Following the Meiji restoration in 1868, a group of 37 Japanese colonists arrived on the island under the sponsorship of the Japanese Home Ministry in March 1876. The island was officially incorporated into Tokyo Metropolis on 28 October 1880. Prehistoric tools were discovered at the end of the 20th century on Chichi-jima. Today, approximately 2,000 people live on this island.Hahajima was originally called Coffin Island or Hillsborough Island and settled by Europeans before becoming part of Japan. Its name means “Mother Island” and it is the second-largest island of the Ogasawara Islands, at approximately 21 square kilometers. [In 1904 the population was 1,546 which grew to 1,905 people in 1940. In World War II, the Japanese government removed the locals and fortified the island as it was the target of several attacks by US forces. Today, Hahajima has a population of only 450, the economy based on commercial fishing as well as a state-run rum distillery. The remains of the fortification are now one of the tourist attractions of the island. There is one road from the now-abandoned village of Kitamura, which before the war had a population of about 600 people, at the north end of the island, going to the village of Okimura (formerly known as Newport) at the southern end of the island, where the harbor is located. The island can be reached by ferry in about two hours from Chichijima.]The Ogasawara Islands were registered as a World Natural Heritage in 2011. Ogasawara islands: Ototojima, Anijima, Chichi, Minamijima, Hahajima, Anejima, Meijima and Imotojima
The Ogasawara (Bonin) islands are composed of the three island groups, listed here from north to south, Mukojima Islands, Chichijima Islands, and Hahajima Islands. They are part of the Nanpo archipelago. Until 1830, the islands were uninhabited and thus called Muninjima (meaning “uninhabited island”). This Japanese name was transliterated or transformed into the more widely known English name – the Bonin Islands.The Nanpo Islands are all administered by Tokyo Metropolis. The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard defines the Nanpo Shoto as including the following archipelagos: Izu Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Volcano Islands, North Iwo Islands, South Iwo Islands, Okinotorishima and Minamitorishima.The first recorded visit by Europeans to the islands happened on 2 October 1543, when the Spanish explorer Bernardo de la Torre on the San Juan sighted Haha-jima, which he charted as Forfana. At that time, the islands were uninhabited.Japanese discovery of the islands occurred in Kanbun 10 (1670) and was followed by a shogunate expedition in Enpo 3 (1675). The islands were then referred to as Bunin jima, literally “the uninhabited islands”. Shimaya Ichizaemon, the explorer at the order of the shogunate, inventoried several species of trees and birds, but after his expedition, the shogunate abandoned any plans to develop the remote islands.In 1727, Ogasawara Sadato, a ronin, claimed that the islands were discovered by his ancestor Ogasawara Sadayori in 1593, (Tensho 20), and the territory was granted as a fief by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. However, investigation of the claim found that it was a fraud and the very existence of Sadayori was doubtful. As a punishment Sadato was exiled by the shogunate (1735).In 1827 Captain F. W. Beechey of HMS Blossom reached the island chain and claimed them as a British possession. A copper plate was removed from Blossom’s hull and left on a beach as a marker of the claim. Beechey was surprised to find two men living on the islands.In 1830, with the help of British Consul to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) Richard Charlton, the first permanent colony was established there. Further settlers arrived in 1846. Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy visited the islands in 1853 and bought property at Port Lloyd from Savory for $50. The US “Colony of Peel Island” (Chichijima) was created and Savory was appointed governor.
In 1861, the Tokugawa shogunate would inform all foreign embassies of its claim over the islands, and later in that same year, an expedition entitled “Examination of the islands in Izu Province and cultivation of the island Ogasawara” set sail for the archipelago. (Tanaka 1983, 244).On 18 January 1862 (Bunkyu 1), Captain Ono Tomogoro and the Japanese steamboat Kanrin-maru weighed down by cannons, with a crew of about 80 (cartographers, physicians and prominent bureaucrats), entered the harbor of Port Lloyd in the Ogasawara Islands, where only 32 years earlier, a group of whalers had settled permanently. Declaring that the Ogasawara islands had long been a part of Japan, and that the expedition was an act of “reclaiming” the islands in the name of their earlier owners, the descendants of Ogasawara Sadayuki who in 1728 fraudulently claimed it as his hereditary domain, worked like a charm. The islands became part of the shogun-owned lands of eastern Japan, and were now officially named Ogasawara, referring to the legendary Japanese discoverer from the late 16th century.After the magistrate had staked his claim in front of the islanders, the Japanese expedition started to map and explore the island. The captain went out to draw the coastlines from the sea, while others proceeded inland to climb the mountains. They invented new Japanese toponyms to label the land and they occupied space culturally through land reclamation, carefully documented in landscape paintings. Particular attention was paid to underwater topography in order to evaluate the navigability of bays and straits.Attitudes concerning foreigners and new technologies began to change, becoming more open, and ultimately forming tangible imperial ambitions. The shogunate’s resolute annexation of the archipelago reflects the emergence of a new economic approach to modernizing colonialism, beginning with the investigating economic opportunities in the Pacific sphere.Contact with the whalers and earlier inhabitants introduced new technologies and species into Japan, for example. Officials were particularly intrigued by formerly unknown plant and animal species found on the islands.Japanese settlements were established; maritime resources were explored for economy; and geographical notions were reshaped in order to make the overseas territory a part of the Izu archipelago some 700 kilometers farther north. Ethnicity and coastlines were no longer the unique criteria that demarcated Japan.It was the perfect setting. While maintaining an ostensible conformity with the Confucian ideal of agrarian societies, the Tokugawa shogunate also encouraged whaling as a means of turning the sea into a space of production.Ogasawara was put under the authority of Egawa Tarozaemon, the shogunal representative in Shimoda. Instead of culturally integrating the previous population, the Japanese created two distinct spaces of settlement. Most Japanese settlers resided near the administrative offices in Ogiura and in the newly opened villages in the south of Chichijima, avoiding conflicts over agrarian space with most “foreign” inhabitants of Omura and Okumura villages across the bay. Taxes were not collected from foreigners right away, but settler colonialism promised an expansion of taxable lands.This colonization, however, did not last for long. In summer 1863, under foreign pressure, the shogunate ordered the evacuation of the islands. In 1875 the Japanese Meiji government reclaimed the islands. The Japanese names of each island were resolved and 38 settlers from Hachijojima were sent the following year. In 1876 the islands were put under the direct control of the Home Ministry and the islanders of European and US ancestry were granted Japanese nationality in 1882.During World War II, most inhabitants were forcibly evacuated to the mainland. There was a Japanese military base on Chichijima run by a Major Sueo Matoba, who was known for engaging in cannibalism and other acts on prisoners of war. He was hanged for his crimes after the war. Following World War II, the islands were controlled by the United States Navy, which expelled all residents except those descended from the original settlers and/or related to them by marriage, while allowing the return of pre-war inhabitants of White American or European, Micronesian or Polynesian ancestry.The islands were returned to Japanese control in 1968.
Close-up cropped views of the Izu Peninsula, Sagami Bay, Tokyo Bay, Boso Peninsula,etcYokosuka: