|French Army Expedition Canteen|
Kitchen Service for 6 Men
In Rare Complete and Not Used Condition
Including Peugeot Coffee Grinder
In Original Wooden Trunk
France, 1952. Complete kitchen trunk issued by the French Army for expedition use, comprising place settings and cutlery for six men, cooking pots, roasting pan, a grill, cooking utensils, decanters, a Peugeot coffee grinder and drip filter, drinking cups, and more. Items still in the original brown paper wrapping, many bundled secure with the original straps. Contained in the original trunk made of wood and painted in military green, with metal corner braces and frame, working metal clasps, army inventory number stamped to front, itemized list of contents (in French) mounted to inside of lid including illustration for efficient packing. Trunk measures 75 x 45 x 31 cm (38 x 18 x 12 inches). Some storage wear to trunk, otherwise this set in Very Good condition, a scarce find as this one has been never used.These were used in First Indochina War, as described in a book titled, “Battalion Bigeard” by Erwan Bergot, a French Army officer who served in the war.Seldom are these kits found complete, and in new unused condition, as it is here. The Peugeot coffee grinder, for instance, is most often missing, but is present here. French army officers found the kits to be a puzzle to fit back into the trunk after use, and especially if hurried, it only stands to reason that items would be left behind, and bumped while trying to close up. It has also been said that officers were strictly judged at the time of review, if a kit was not complete. Ultimately not ideal for the needs of the basic units in maneuvers, they fell into disuse, and a revamped kit was finally created in the 1990s.
Self Portrait Miniature Painting
Artist and Sitter
Maud Sutton Pickhard
Illegitimate Daughter of Politician Robert B Roosevelt, Sr.
First Cousin of President ‘Teddy’ Roosevelt
Also Related to President Franklin Roosevelt
And First Lady Eleonore Roosevelt
Original miniature self-portrait painting by Roosevelt family member Maud Sutton Pickhard (née Fortescue 1880-1961), in a most elegant daytime “best” dress, signed MSP by the artist. As she looks fairly young in this image, had a London address, and at the time was still using the title “Mrs,” the painting was made no earlier than 1900 and presumably in 1908 or earlier while she was still married. Inscribed in manuscript to verso “No 1. Title: A Study in Silver. Artist: (Mrs) Maud F Sutton Pickhard R.B.A. Flat 8, 31 Buckingham Gate S.W.” Mounted in a large oval pendant with copper frame over glass, expertly crafted with six copper pins securing the cloth covered cardstock mount into the frame, measuring approximately 8 x 7 x 0,5 cm. Contained in a recent purpose-made clamshell box with foam padding for protection. Very slight age-toning to frame, otherwise in Very Good to Near Fine, original condition.
The artist was a published female author born into the prominent Roosevelt family through rather scandalous circumstances. She is first cousin to President ‘Teddy’ Roosevelt, and first cousin once removed to Miss Eleanor Roosevelt. She is also twice connected to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, through lineage as fifth cousins once removed, and more closely through Eleonore’s marriage to Franklin.
The American Roosevelt family of business and political fame include two United States Presidents, a First Lady, various merchants, politicians, inventors, clergymen, artists, and socialites. Progeny of a mid-17th century Dutch immigrant to New Amsterdam, many members of the family became locally prominent in New York City business and politics and intermarried with prominent colonial families. Two distantly related branches of the family from Oyster Bay on Long Island and Hyde Park in Dutchess County rose to national political prominence with the elections of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909) and his fifth cousin Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945), whose wife, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, was Theodore’s niece.
A remarkable miniature oval self-portrait pendant with numerous illustrious Roosevelt connections, the artist herself being a published female author, little-known for her skill as a painter.
Maud Sutton Pickhard née Fortescue (born 25 August 1880 in Manhattan, died 1961) was the illegitimate child of U.S. Congressman Robert Barnwell Roosevelt, Sr. (1829-1906) and his Irish immigrant mistress Marion Theresa “Minnie” O’Shea Fortescue (1849-1902).
At the time of her birth, her father was still married to his first wife, Elizabeth Ellis. Robert initially established a satellite family in Manhattan on the same street as his primary family’s residence, listing himself in the New York City Directory as a fictitious lawyer named Robert F. Fortescue with Marion as his wife. After Ellis’ death, in 1888, Robert married Marion in a Roman Catholic Church in Clapham, England, Marion officially becoming his second wife. He subsequently adopted Maud and her two brothers. The three children that he had conceived with Minnie before their marriage were known as his stepchildren. The children maintained the Fortescue name throughout their lives, even though they were born into the Roosevelt family. Maud’s father was known as a ladies’ man, having had several mistresses over the years. He reputedly purchased garish green gloves at a sale in A. T. Stewart’s Department Store, and distributed them to his paramours. For years his friends amused themselves, while strolling down Fifth Avenue or riding in Central Park, by looking to see who was wearing “the green gloves.”
At twenty years of age, in 1900, Maud left a relatively sedate life, to marry Ernest William Sutton-Pickhard, the son of German-born Manhattan millionaire Ernest Wilhelm Pickhardt who had made his fortune in the dye industry. She moved with her husband to London, although the births of their two children, Roland in 1901 and Marion in 1904, occurred in New York. Maude and Pickhardt were divorced at the time of his suicide in 1909. She had anglicized her name to Pickhard. Maud returned intermittently to Manhattan.
Mid-September 1914 she set off from Charing Cross depot, London, to see what France was like in war time, thinking she could convey “to those who are obliged to remain at home some idea of the great work which is being done in France by the Red Cross and other kindred organisations”. She took with her a letter addressed to a Doctor Turner who was based in a Paris hospital, formerly the Lycee Pasteur, where she hoped to work as a VAD because she was under the impression this facility was short of nurses and untrained volunteers. In Folkstone, she was obligated to fill out a form to prove she was not a spy, and was made to hand over her newspapers. She described her arrival at Dieppe as a “scene of a great exodus… over twenty-thousand refugees… a mad struggle” to get on boats travelling to England. Maud fearlessly pressed on, convinced her social connections would open doors and keep her from harm.
Maud indeed volunteered as a nurse in France during the early part of the Great War. She wrote of her experiences in ‘France in war time, 1914-1915’ published by Metheun in 1915. In 1941 she also published ‘The Roosevelts and America’ which charts the history of the Roosevelt family in America over a period of 300 years. In 1945 Maude married Brigadier General Richard L. A. Pennington.
Maud’s Roosevelt connections:
Robert Roosevelt (Maud’s father), was the brother of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831-1878), and therefore uncle of 26th US President Theodore ‘Teddy’ Roosevelt, Jr. (1858-1919) and great-uncle of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Maud’s brother Kenyon Fortescue (1870-1939), was a Sayville resident and a partner in the Manhattan law firm of Roosevelt and Kobbe; he never married.
Her brother Granville Fortescue (1875-1952), was an American soldier who served with his cousin, Theodore Roosevelt in Cuba. He was a presidential aide in the first Roosevelt administration and later a journalist and war correspondent. He was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, the only Roosevelt to be buried there.
Granville’s daughter, Maud’s niece, is American actress Helene Whitney (born Kenyon Fortescue, 1914-1990). She appeared in films in the late 1930s and 1940s. She was known as Helene Reynolds after her marriage to Julian Louis Reynolds, son of Richard S. Reynolds, Sr. and heir to the Reynolds aluminum and tobacco fortunes.A quality crafted brass pendant with jewelry pins:
Signature of Maud Sutton Pickhard (née Fortescue):
|Literature – Theatre – Film|
Works of Peter Ulrich Weiss
From New York City’s
Miss Joan Daves
Renowned Female Literary Agent
Six Nobel Laureates
Including Martin Luther King, Jr.
New York City, Frankfurt, Stockholm, etc., 1961-1966. Substantial archive of documents concerning the publication and production of several notable literary works and theatrical plays by Peter Ulrich Weiss, including correspondence, draft agreements, contracts signed with leading publishers and producers, as well as some programmes and peer reviews, being the working files of his New York agent, Joan Daves. Together with 3 LP record box sets of the first and complete Broadway original cast music recording for the Marat/Sade play. Octavo and Folio documents and letters, ranging in size and number of pages, some signed in the original. Most are in English; some are in German; the lot neatly contained in four ring binders. The vast majority of the documents date to the 1960s, with a scant few being later including a letter regarding a special television production in 1979 with NBC. Occasional wear to extremities, otherwise in very good condition, beautifully preserved, clean and bright. A generous and comprehensive archive chronicling the work and partnership of a leading literary agent in the rise of German-American publishing, and one of her notable German writers.Provenance: From the desk of Weiss’ literary agent for the US, Joan Daves.Joan Daves (1919-1997) was a leading literary agent with her own agency in New York, whose client list boasts six Nobel Prize winners including Martin Luther King, Jr. Daves had a profound effect on the very existence of German literature in America. Born Liselotte Davidson in Berlin, she escaped Nazi Germany by fleeing to Paris and England before emigrating to the United States in 1940. Her agency, established in 1948, handled the original works of several American authors. She handled Martin Luther King, Jr.’s literary property from 1957 until her death. Of great emphasis with her firm was the representation of several major German publishers, such as Suhrkamp, Piper, S. Fischer Verlag and others. It was the prime time of German writers such as Peter Weiss, Uwe Johnson, Max Frisch, Heinar Kipphardt, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, and Hermann Hesse.In the mid-1960s, communication with German publishers was quite different from today. A shipment of galleys was prepared with a ‘by sea mail’ label. When the New York Times printed the date and time the next ship would leave the harbor, delivery of the parcels of documents to that specific ship was requested.Peter Ulrich Weiss (1916-1982) was a German author, playwright, and experimental filmmaker, who gained celebrity fame on Broadway in the 1960s. He is particularly known for his plays “Marat/Sade” of 1963/65 which is largely represented in the present archive and which was enormously successful, for “The Investigation” of 1965, and for his later novel “The Aesthetics of Resistance” (1971-81). In the 1960s Weiss also embraced and promoted politically controversial groups, standing for revolutionary Cuba, standing against US intervention in Vietnam, and joining Sweden’s eurocommunist party.
Peter Ulrich Weiss earned his reputation in the post-war German literary world as the proponent of an avant-garde, meticulously descriptive writing, as an exponent of autobiographical prose, and also as a politically engaged dramatist.In an era of heightened creativity, irreverence and extravagance in the music and literature, especially among youths. Weiss, although already in his fifties, gained international success with Marat/Sade, the American production of which was awarded a Tony Award and its subsequent film adaptation directed by Peter Brook. His Auschwitz Oratorium (The Investigation), served to broaden the debates over the so-called Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit (formerly called Vergangenheitsbewältigung ) or “politics of history.”In the 1960s Weiss became increasingly radical and publicly spoken in his political convictions. Weiss’ magnum opus was The Aesthetics of Resistance, which has been called the most important German-language work of the 70s and 80s.
Following are some of Weiss’ career highlights and awards, pertaining to and/or related to his works which are discussed in the present documents: • In 1959 he began working on Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking, also known as Farewell to the Parents). The prestigious Suhrkamp Publishing House becomes Weiss’ publisher for all of his works, following the success of publishing his “Shadow of the Coachman’s Body”. • In 1960 Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking) was published. • In 1961 Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point) was published. • In 1962 Das Gespräch der drei Gehenden (The Conversation of Three Wanderers) was published. • In 1963 he is awarded the Charles Veillon prize, by the city of Stockholm, for his Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point). • In 1964 his play Marat/Sade premiered at Schillertheater in West Berlin, and from that date Weiss is considered as one of the most important post-war European playwrights. Being enormously popular, that same year the play was translated into English by Geoffrey Skelton, with lyric adaptation by Adrian Mitchell. • In 1965, British director Peter Brook staged Marat/Sade at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in London. Also in 1965, Weiss’ play about Auschwitz titled Die Ermittlung (The Investigation) was premiered simultaneously on 16 stages in both West and East Germany. In this same year, Weiss was awarded the Lessing Prize, by the city of Hamburg, as well as a literature prize by the Swedish labour movement. • In 1966 Marat/Sade won the American Theater Wing’s Tony award for best play. Also, a two-hour version of Weiss’ The Investigation was presented at the Ambassador Theater on Broadway in 1966, under the direction of Ulu Grosbard. • In 1966 Weiss visited the United States, together with the West German writers group Gruppe 47. During a conference at Princeton University, arranged by Gruppe 47, he denounced the US war against North Vietnam, which seems to have scandalized his German colleagues more than his US hosts. This was the first time he publicly expressed his position regarding the Vietnam War, in his important speech: “I Come Out of My Hiding Place”. [After this reveal, he wrote a series of political plays, thus also becoming one of the most influential European intellectuals, and a travelling spokesman for Left politics.] Also in 1966, the East Berlin Academy of Arts awarded him with the Heinrich-Mann prize. Weiss became an active member of the Swedish Communist party in 1966. During his visit, he attended at least one of the Broadway premiers, according to a letter in the present archive. • In May 1966, Weiss names Miss Joan Daves as his power of attorney. • It 1967 Marat/Sade was produced as a Broadway show in the United States, and Brook’s film version, also in 1967, turned Marat/Sade into an international cultural icon. In 1967 Weiss was awarded the Carl Albert Anderson Prize, a Swedish culture prize. He participated in the anti-war Russell Tribunal in Stockholm. This year he also protested Israel’s policy after the Six-Day War. • In 1968 he visited North Vietnam, and his Viet Nam Diskurs (Discourse) was premiered in Frankfurt am Main. He also and published a book about his trip. Weiss’s play, The Song of the Lusitanian Bogey, was performed in New York in 1968, as the first production of the new Negro Ensemble Company. It was an indictment of Portuguese policies in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea. • In 1982 he was posthumously awarded the Georg Büchner Prize, which is one of the two most important and prestigious literary prizes for the German language, the other being the Goethe Prize.
“The Persecution of Marat/Sade” earned Weiss critical acclaim instantly. The present archive presents a singular, step-by-step, primary source chronicle of the making of the book, the play, the music recordings, the film, and a live tour, for the American audience specifically.Among the documents, we find plenty of correspondence and agreements, which together form a most detailed and thorough history of the English translation and publication of the book, the Broadway play, and also the first film production of Marat/Sade. Parties involved in the negotiations and final transactions include Peter Weiss himself, his agent Joan Daves, publishing firms, film directors, touring companies, attorneys, translators, and others. The extensive and ongoing discourse illustrates the magnitude, the complexities and even the politics involved in such endeavours, especially in producing such a grand affair in New York’s prime Broadway theatres.Popularly known as “Marat/Sade,” his play became an overnight a sensation. “Die Verfolgung und Ermordung Jean Paul Marats dargestellt durch die Schauspielgruppe des Hospizes zu Charenton unter Anleitung des Herrn de Sade” [The Persecution and Assassination of Jean Paul Marat As Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of Monsieur de Sade] was first performed in West Berlin in 1964. It quickly brought Weiss to fame, The following year, 1965, British director Peter Brook staged it at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in London. It 1967 Marat Sade was produced as a Broadway show, and Brook’s film version, also in 1967, turned Marat/Sade into an international cultural icon.The story has to do with the French Revolution. Set in the historical Charenton Asylum insane asylum, constantly in danger of being overwhelmed by madness and chaos, the play explores the place of writers and intellectuals in a time of revolutionary upheaval. At its center are two very different historical figures, Jean-Paul Marat, a writer and leading intellectual of the French Revolution, and the Marquis de Sade, a writer and intellectual as well, whose attitude towards the revolution is much more ambivalent and who was egocentrically obsessed with eroticism, hedonism, and pain. [The terms sadism and sadist are derived from his name. Sade was incarcerated in various prisons and an insane asylum for some 32 years.]In the play, Weiss draws both on Antonin Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty, and its opposite, Brecht’s theater of reason. In the words of de Sade: “Our intent in creating such dialogues as these, was to experiment with various antitheses, to oppose each to each so that we might, upon our many doubts shed some light”.Much of the ongoing discussion of the play has focused on whether it is Marat’s or Sade’s position which prevails. Beginning with Marat/Sade, Weiss’s work increasingly attracted the attention of communist East Germany.
The archive further features the First and Complete Broadway Original Cast Recording for Marat/Sade produced in 3 LP Vinyl record sets, each present here in their original boxes, and with the original accompanying printed materials.“The Persecution and Assassination of Jean Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of Monsieur de Sade.”In 1964, the play was translated into English by Geoffrey Skelton, with lyric adaptation by Adrian Mitchell, and staged by the Royal Shakespeare Company. Peter Brook was Director. The cast included Ian Richardson as the herald, Clive Revill as Marat, Patrick Magee as de Sade and Glenda Jackson as Charlotte Corday. After two previews, the Broadway production opened on 27 December 1965 at the Martin Beck Theatre and ran for 145 performances. Richardson took over the role of Marat, while Magee and Jackson reprised the roles they had originated in London. In 1966, the play won the Tony Award for Best Play, and Brook was named Best Director. Additional awards went to Magee for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play, and Gunilla Palmstierna-Weiss for her Costume Design. It also won the 1966 New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for Best Play.Recordings of the songs were made by the cast of the original Royal Shakespeare Company production and film. The first recording of the show was a three-LP set released in 1964 by Caedmon Records. This was a complete audio recording of the original Broadway production. The box sets seen here were produced in 1966. A second release of the film score was later issued on a single soundtrack album LP, produced by Caedmon/United Artists Records.The present archive includes the following box sets:One rare set, publisher’s item number TRS-312-M:
A complete set with three records, the 118-page book of play & music published in New York by Atheneum Books 1966, a large and beautifully illustrated 16-page insert containing biographies and play summary published by Caedman Records in 1966, 3 LP records in their original paper sleeves, and the factory inspection slip. This box contains a rare magazine of 50 pages containing the music scores of Marat/Sade (music by Richard Pealslee), published by Highgate Press Agents for Galaxy Music Corporation of New York and Galliard Limited of London, protected in a mylar wrap. All text is in English. This set in a clamshell style box with titled in gilt to spine. New and unused condition.Two of the more common sets bearing item number TRS-312-S:
One of these is complete and includes the factory inspection slip. New and unused condition. The other lacks the book, but contains the biographical insert and the 3 records. The latter with small segment of box detached at the side, otherwise these two sets are in very good condition, text is in English.
Several of Weiss’ other works are represented here, in correspondence, agreements, translation works, reviews, and the like. These include The Tower, Lusitanian Bogey, Vietnam Discourse, Leavetaking, Vanishing Point, The Conversation of Three Wanderers.About the above-named titles:1949 – Der Turm (The Tower).
[A short radio play originally, and a dramatized psychoanalysis in the form of a metaphor, the work is founded on Freudian principles and illustrates a liberation process related to trauma. This works was translated into English in 1967 by Michael Benedikt and Michel Heine.]1960 – Abschied von den Eltern (Leavetaking. aka Farewell to the Parents).
[Weiss’ first autobiographical narrative and one of his main works. The reason for the text was the “realization of a completely unsuccessful attempt at living together, caused by the death of his mother in December 1958 and then his father in March 1959, after which the members of a family had spent a few decades together. The narrative begins with a report on the death of the parents, which is the occasion of doing so by the narrator. From earliest youth, the narrator has felt like an outsider. Above all, the father-son relationship proves to be significant, and ultimately paralyzes the activity of the dreamy, sensitive boy who wants to become an artist. After studying at the Academy of Art, he returns to the home of his parents, who had emigrated to Sweden. Finally after two or so years, he gets a vision to leave. Leavetaking was published in English in 1966, by Calder & Boyars, from the translation of Christopher Levenson.]1961 – Fluchtpunkt (Vanishing Point).
[An autobiography. In terms of content, it ties in with Weiss’ farewell narrative. Weiss traces the work of his early life as an emigrant in the years between 1940 and 1947, which were marked by the struggle for his existence as an artist. Vanishing Point, too, was published in English in 1966, by Calder & Boyars, from the translation of Christopher Levenson.]1962 – Das Gespräch der drei Gehenden (The Conversation of Three Wanderers).
[A brilliant work of prose in modern German literature, and the first of this style of writing by Weiss, the three characters engage in a fascinating monologue, partly animated by memories, partly tormented by bizarre and disturbing visions, each feeling a disconnect to their own existence.]1967 – Gesang vom Lusitanischen Popanz (Song of the Lusitanian Bogey)
[A play, being an indictment of Portuguese policies in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea. It was performed in New York in 1968 as the first production of the new Negro Ensemble Company.]1968 – Notizen zum kulturellen Leben der Demokratischen Republik Viet Nam. (Notes on the Cultural Life of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.)
[This was a condemnation of American policy in Southeast Asia.]
The archive is most relevant to Weiss’s arrival and influence in America, as a leading writer and dramatist in the emergence of German-American literature. Together the documents reveal the process and politics involved in obtaining English translations, performance rights, the creation of play settings, planning a live tour, and much more.Some of the American firms involved include the David Merrick Arts Foundation (film producer, Tony Award winner in 1968), New York City publishing house Atheneum Books established in 1959, Dramatic Publishing Company (DPC) of Chicago, Caedmon Records founded in New York in 1952 (now Caedmon Audio), James Love Productions which was producing Hasboro’s toy commercial in this period, the partnership of Atlantic Monthly Press / Little Brown, the Negro Ensemble Company, and the Coconut Grove Playhouse theatre in Miami, Galaxy Music, NBC, TV, and more.In addition to the voluminous lot of correspondence and contracts, we find occasional details of financial interest including agents’ fees, legal costs, terms for royalties and deposits paid, and a few matters concerning Weiss’ personal accounts. The archive also contains publicity and newspaper reviews, as well as some ephemeral items such as programmes.There is much involvement between the German publishing firm Suhrkamp, literary agent Joan Daves, New York based publishers Atheneum Book, various American stage producers, film producers, directors, translators, and the like. At quick glance, we find original signatures of Siegfried Unseld, director of Suhrkamp Verlag of Frankfurt/Main, as well as that of Simon Michael Bessie, one of the two founders of Atheneum Books. [Suhrkamp Verlag is a German publishing house, established in 1950 and generally acknowledged as one of the leading European publishers of fine literature. Atheneum Books was a New York City publishing house established in 1959 by Alfred A. Knopf, Jr., Simon Michael Bessie and Hiram Haydn.]At least five letters by Weiss, to his agent Joan Daves, are signed in the original by him, as well as one copy of a contract. Rather interesting is the signed and notarized Power of Attorney document, dated 5 May 1966, with which Weiss appoints his literary agent Miss Daves to handle his affairs post-mortem.There are also letters to/from actor Joel Arnold, British translator Geoffrey Skelton, the International Copyright Agency of Jan Van Loewen who born in Berlin as Hans Lowenstein, was an actor and agent, and many others.Following are some specific examples of the contents of the archive:Two book publishing contracts between Suhrkamp Verlag of Frankfurt/Main and New York’s Atheneum Publishers, for translated works of Mr. Weiss, both being signed in the original, made in 1964 and 1965, respectively. One of this pertains to Marat/Sade. To the earliest contract is affixed a receipt voucher for $1000 advance payment.A 1967 draft contract, between Suhrkamp Verlag and Peter Weiss himself, for the publication of Abschied von den Eltern, heavily ruled in ink and appended with a footnote concerning content that may “violate any person’s right of privacy… contains anything obscene, scandalous, libelous…” [The author, by this time, had become known for his controversial and provocative works.]Official receipt from the Copyright Office of the United States of America, for Weiss’ book “I Come Out of My Hiding Place” with small certificate affixed to front, signed and stamped in the original. This work was written in English by Weiss himself, first delivered as a speech at Princeton University on 25 April 1966 and copyrighted for publication on May 30th.Agreements made between 1966 and 1969 which delineate the particulars for the English translation of “Das Gesprach der drei Gehenden” as well as the royalties paid to Weiss for the publishing of four of his literary works by Delacorte Press.
As well as New York Literary Agent Miss Joan Daves, several other notable persons are represented here. Among the documents are the following:Marat Sade Productions Ltd. letter signed by the firm’s co-director and film producer Lord Birkett, 31 May 1966, concerning a “new Sade monologue” for the upcoming film adaptation which would be released in 1967. [Lord Michael Birkett (1929-2015) was chairman of the British Film Academy in the 1960s and served at the National Theatre in the 70s.]Typescript English translation by Ralph Manheim, one of the most acclaimed translators of the 20th century, of Weiss’ lesser known short work titled “Gegen die Gesetze der Normalitä” [Against the Laws of Normality]. [Ralph Frederick Manheim (1907-1992) was an American translator of German and French literature, as well as occasional works from Dutch, Polish and Hungarian.]Letters from Alvin Deutsch, New York attorney who specialized in intellectual property matters, representing authors, composers, lyricists, theatre and literary agencies, concerning copyright as well as the Broadway tour. [He was for 30 years senior member of Linden & Deutsch (subsequently Deutsch Klagsbrun & Blasband) which merged recently with McLaughlin and Stern.]We also find correspondence with Robert T. Gaus Associates, tour management company, in relation to negotiations with Alvin Deutsch for prime-city and secondary-city tour options.Several letters or correspondence in regards to a “Zef Bufman Tour of Marat/Sade” between Zef Bufman’s agent, various theatre companies, attorneys, and more. [Zev Buffman is a Broadway producer and current President and CEO of Ruth Eckerd Hall in Clearwater, Florida. He has produced more than 40 Broadway shows. He partnered with Elizabeth Taylor to present her in her Broadway debut of The Little Foxes. He is credited with producing the 1967 Broadway show Marat Sade.]The lot of documents is contained in four binders
and accompanied by three records box sets:
12 Masterpieces of Korean Arts
from the Cheong Wa Dae – the Blue House
With the Seal of the President
of Southern Korea
[12 Selections from the Masterpieces of Korean Arts]
[Seoul], circa 1958. A special copy, bearing the South Korean Presidential Seal, quite conceivably a unique one-off presentation copy from the Korean Government, of the photogravure portfolio, showcasing a select few of the exquisite Korean art works, which were jointly selected by a Korean-American committee and displayed at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. exhibition “Masterpieces of Korean Arts” held from 15 December 1957 to 12 January 1958. Folio. Complete, with 12 full colour photogravures, each bordered with loosely placed captioned leaf, and contained in its own folding cardstock covers bearing the portfolio title to front and a detailed historical and physical description to interior. Folders open from left to right, suggesting that this work was printed in Korea. Text is in both Korean and English. Publisher’s original cloth teal and gold patterned portfolio covers, with two intact bone clasps for secure closure, and gilt presidential seal to front. Photogravure leafs measure approximately 42,5 x 34 cm. Portfolio measures approximately 43 x 34,5 x 3,5 cm Mild age-toning and wear to boards with one cosmetic tear to cloth to interior of one flap, otherwise in very good and original condition, a most unusual variant of this beautiful work, and most likely a Presentation copy from the South Korean Government.
The present item is quite rare in any state, but especially this one as it shows a gilt phoenix and flower (Rose of Sharon) emblem found on the presidential seal of South Korea. It is most likely a Presentation Copy from the Korean Government to America, as a memorial to their collaboration of hosting a superb exhibition of historic Korean Art. OCLC shows a few ‘standard’ editions in libraries.
The status and authority of the President of South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is represented by a symbolic phoenix emblem. The virtues represented by the mythological bird are parallel to the values a king had to pursue in governing the people, and the design of phoenix was attached on the ceiling of the throne hall of Gyeongbokgung palace, which was the main palace during much of the Joseon Kingdom (1392-1910). The design of the phoenix is still used today as the emblem that represents the office of the President of Korea.
The exhibition “Masterpieces of Korean Art” was held at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., from 15 December 1957 to 12 January 1958. A joint committee of Koreans and Americans selected 187 objects, with the aim of presenting a cross section of Korean art from 200 B.C. to about 1900.
Included were 8 jeweled crowns, 15 other objects of gold, 10 of stoneware and tile, 23 gilt bronzes, 34 paintings, and 102 ceramics, including examples of Korean celadon. This was the first large exhibition of Korean art to be seen outside the Far East. It was held under the auspices of the government of the Republic of Korea, and organized with the cooperation of the Department of State, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the American-Korean Foundation.
For the first time at the National Gallery of Art, a modern innovative installation was prepared by professional designers. Benjamin W. Lawless and Robert B. Widder of the Smithsonian Institution Exhibition Office designed special display islands using black gravel and white marble chips, industrial cork, see-through vitrines, oriental plants, and dramatic lighting. Three jeweled crowns of the Silla dynasty, unique to Korea, were placed prominently in Gallery G-8 at the end of the Central Gallery, their gold and jade pendants fluttering with tiny concealed fans. Ralph T. Coe and Elise V.H. Ferber, museum curators, were responsible for the exhibition at the Gallery.
The exhibit attracted 43,393 attendees, and continued to other Venues – The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Seattle Art Museum, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and the Honolulu Academy of Arts. A catalog was produced in Boston, by publishers T.O. Metcalf Co., 1957, titled for the exhibition, “Masterpieces of Korean Art”.
The Republic of Korea phoenix emblem: Symbol of status and authority of the President
The phoenix is known to have various features of ten different animals. Its appearance from the front is like a wild goose; the appearance from behind a qilin; the china swallow; the beak a rooster; the neck a snake; the tail a fish; the forehead a crane; the cheek a mandarin duck; the pattern on the body a dragon and the back a turtle. Its feathers have five different colors, including red, blue, yellow, white and black.
The features of the ten animals are closely connected to the ten virtues a king is required to have.
A wild goose refers to a man of great character who regards faith between a king and subjects, between friends and between a husband and wife as precious as life.
A qilin, which was known to have appeared at the birth of Confucius, symbolizes a sage complete with wisdom and talent.
As a symbol of a celestial nymph and a woman of noble birth, a swallow represents the talent to make rain, wealth and longevity.
As the first animal to sense when the darkness of night lifts to give way to dawn, the rooster represents magical power to chase away evil spirits and attract good spirits.
The snake symbolizes a rich harvest and fertility.
The fish is regarded as a symbol of military power because it sleeps with its eyes open, has scales that resemble a general’s armor and travels in tight schools like soldiers in formation.
The crane, believed to be among the Earth’s oldest known bird species, symbolizes nobility, virtue and longevity.
The mandarin duck, a traditional symbol of a happy marriage, highlights the importance of family harmony as the foundation for the progress of society and state.
The dragon is a symbol for the most exceptional of people, depicted with five toes when representing the king, with four when representing feudal lords and with three when representing high state councillors.
The turtle, associated with the element water, embodies protection against fire as well as longevity and the gift of foresight.
These attributes represented in the physical appearance of the phoenix correspond closely to the qualities that were expected of the king. It can be said that these same virtues are similarly called for in the President today.
Kamishibai Propaganda Play
Japanese WWII Nationalist Education
Five Innovative Heroic Headmen
Save a Village from Drought
Go Nin No Shoya
Story Illustration Cards
In Original Portfolio
“Gonin no shoya” [Five Estate Owners in the Village]
Japan: Nihon Kyoiku Kamishibai Kyokai, Showa 16 . Creator: Hiroshi Hirabayashi. Kamishibai propaganda play / Japanese picture show (kamishibai) illustrating the benefits and immense moral obligation of collaborating with one other for survival. Folio. The complete work, comprising 20 offset full-colour printed illustrative cards which together form a story to educate or indoctrinate the viewer with nationalist concepts during the Second World War, each with printed story text to verso, one of the cards being the title and publishing information. Text is in Japanese. Contained in publisher’s original paper portfolio covers, with title label to front. Story cards measure approximately 38 x 26 cm. Portfolio covers measure approximately 39 x 27 x 1 cm. Some age-toning and wear to portfolio, otherwise in very good and original condition, cards retaining vivid impression, a fascinating and scarce Second World War propaganda presentation.
Japanese wartime propaganda was distributed through films, magazines and newspapers, radio, books, cartoons and the education system. Publications such as the present illustrative stories, promoted the ideal citizen’s nationalistic point of view, indoctrinating civilians to work collectively and in support of their government’s actions, even when creating some form of imposition on the citizen himself.
Kamishibai are Japanese paper plays that gained popularity among children in the 1930s and were subsequently used as a medium for propaganda during World War II. Also referred to as a “Picture Card Show,” they were made for influencing youth with their engaging storylines and vivid imagery. In 1940, elementary schools were renamed “Citizen’s Schools.” Textbooks became vivid, engaging, and contained militaristic picture-books. During the course of World War II, the Japanese government attempted to indoctrinate Japanese children through education and propaganda. Both methods nationalized youth and encouraged them to support the war effort. Science curriculum, for example education taught children about agriculture so they could better assist in food production for the nation. Youth were expected to volunteer in factories and farms to replace the conscripted labor force.
Additionally, “kokutai,” meaning the uniqueness of the Japanese people in having a leader with spiritual origins, was officially promulgated by the government, including a text book distributed by the Ministry of Education. The purpose of this instruction was to ensure that every child regarded himself first of all as a Japanese and was grateful for the “family polity” structure of government, with its apex in the emperor. Indeed, little effort was made during the course of the war to explain to the Japanese people what it was fought for; instead, it was presented as a chance to rally about the emperor.
This is a dramatic story of collaboration and innovation, its ultimate message being that these virtues are necessary for survival of a society and the individual.
Sustenance being the key to survival, the story unfolds as follows. A village in Western Japan suffering a long arid season which led to drought, was unable to support vegetation and was seeing abandonment as many farmers left the region. Evidently this was a large village, having five shoya (village headman), and the latter devised an irrigation plan to restore its agriculture and ultimately preserve the village.
In order to instill the urgency of success with the undertaking, the local bugyo (governor) approved the project under the alarming condition that if the project failed, the five headmen who also owned estates in the region, would be burnt alive at the stake. He had five hanging platforms erected in preparation of failure, and also to motivate them to accomplish the task lest they meet a gruesome public fate.
Villagers supported the idea and all hands worked diligently to ensure its success. Indeed, working together with a common goal was the key. The water flowed abundantly. The village was saved, and so were the lives of the five headmen. The hanging platforms were set ablaze (without victims) in celebration.
[The Shoya (village headman) and the Nanushi (village headman) are one of village officers (“murakata-sanyaku” in Japanese; the three officers of a village), or one of the machiyakunin (municipal officials) in Edo period. Each Shoya and Nanushi of a village was one of the three officers of a village (“jikata-sanyaku” in Japanese), and the official representative person for the village. In western Japan, the term Shoya was the commonly used name, and Nanushi was the commonly used name in eastern Japan. Additionally, in the regions of Tohoku and Hokuriku, the term Kimoiri (sponsorship) was the commonly used name.]
|Performing Arts Archive|
Manuscript Drawings and Paintings of
Theatrical Pirate Costume Designs
By Ernst Stern
A scarce Costumier’s Working Portfolio
B.J. Simmons & Co. Ltd.
Several Actors Drawn and Named
London West End Theatre
London, 1938. Archive of 64 manuscript pencil drawings and gouache paintings of pirate costumes designed for specific London actors by Ernst Stern, celebrated designer of theatre costume and scenography, pertaining specifically to the musical play with a comedic nautical theme created by playwright Vivien Ellis titled, “The Fleet’s Lit Up.” These are the finely executed works by an artist of B.J. Simmons & Co. Ltd. after the drawings of Ernst Stern, being the working portfolio of Stern’s costumier. Includes 31 pencil drawings with varying amounts of colouring and annotations, made on single leafs measuring approximately 20 x 25 cm, this group contained in the archival portfolio of B.J. Simmons & Co. Ltd., theatrical costumiers who produced the pirate wardrobes for this play; and 33 extra-large watercolour paintings made on leafs measuring approximately 41 x 25 cm and mounted onto green art paper. Annotations include actors’ and singers’ true names, physical measurements for tailoring costumes, and shoe sizes. Some creasing and occasional age-toning, otherwise in very good condition, beautifully preserved original theatrical art works. Stern’s originals are exceedingly scarce.Together with the original programme, with some pencil annotations to the list of actors, by a member of the production team, possibly Stern. 8vo. printed by Stilwell, Derby & Co. Ltd., for the London Hippodrome, where the performance was made, 16 pages including all the ads, original illustrated colour wrappers.
The large gouache paintings illustrate Stern’s full and final costume design. Appended to some of the larger paintings, and annotated directly on the pencil drawings, are the particulars of a specific actor who is named on the leaf, including body measurements and feet size.The pencil drawings kept in the B.J. Simmons & Co. Ltd. is a working portfolio which served to record the tailor’s progress, noting which costume elements, shirts, trousers, accessories, and so forth had been fabricated.
Ernst Stern (1876-1954) was a Romanian-German scenic designer who, through his collaborations with the prominent German directors, Max Reinhardt, is credited with an important role in defining the aesthetic of expressionism for both theatre and cinema. Prolific in his artistic field, he designed some ninety shows for the Deutsches Theater in Berlin from 1906 to 1921, continuing at such a pace for the next two decades. Evidently, he was in Hollywood for a brief time in 1922. By 1924, Stern had returned to Germany, working at the Großes Schauspielhaus, where he designed for a number of musical revues and a popular musical. In the late 1920s, Stern also began spending considerable time in London. Stern was in Paris in 1933 and remained in the city for a short time before settling permanently in London in 1934. For the rest of his career he primarily collaborated with British writers at the Savoy Theatre, Aldwych Theatre, and Adelphi Theatre. He also designed the displays for Selfridges for the coronation of King George VI and collaborated with Donald Wolfit on several Shakespeare productions during World War II. Stern was awarded a pension by George VI and died in London.The firm B.J. Simmons & Co. was a British theatrical costumier, founded in 1857, operating in Covent Garden until 1964. They created stage costumes for hundreds of theatre productions in London, as well as the provinces, and even overseas. Simmons also provided costumes for over one hundred films. During their century-long behind the scenes participation in the performing arts, they produced thousands upon thousands of costumes. Their success was surely due to their strong reputation for historical accuracy and immaculately constructed stage apparel.So stated in the official programme, “The pirate costumes designed by Professor Ernst Stern and executed by B.J. Simmons & Co. Ltd.” Stern played a major role in this production, designing costumes and stage settings. His name appears multiple times on the “Synopsis of Scenes” where eight of the fourteen design sets are attributed to him.
This two-act play involved a motley crew of pirates – with one especially provocative female lead role, a fleet review, a vessel called the Seahorse, and a voyage to the Near East, all in all a perfect recipe for British entertainment encompassing naval history and tradition.
For Mary Read, the scandalously provocative female pirate “Mary Read”, we find four actors or singers named and illustrated, suggesting that these paintings may have made at the time of audition, and variant costumes being designed for each individual.Some of the performers we find in the programme, are also named on the costume drawings, providing us with an artistic visual account of the cast. These include:
• Beatrice Hannah Boarer (1888-1954) as “Polly’s Mistress”
• Ralph Reader (William Henry Ralph Reader CBE 1903-1982), British actor who later became a very successful theatrical producer and songwriter, who in this play was Lieutenant Jack Prentice
• Arthur Gomez (1902-1976), the Chancellor in this production
• Billy Buckland who plays a midshipman, and performed in several plays of the period
• Goerge Korel who also played a midshipman
• Robert Hine who played the Department Chief (best remembered for his role in The New Waiter, 1930, performed in at least two other productions).The artworks further identify these two British actors, not on the principal cast list, therefore probably playing minor roles, or as extras: William “Billy” Tasker (1901-1992) of Cheschire, and Mr. Maresch, possibly being Harald Maresch (1916-1986) whose acting career ended due to the suicide of Lupe Velez who blamed him for her death.Other actors in this production, whose we find in the programme, include Frances Day (née Frances Victoria Schenk) who was extremely popular for her outrageously sexy and infinitely suggestive acting and who made a show stopping performance of Cole Porter’s song “It’s De-Lovely” in “The Fleet’s Lit Up” and Adele Dixon as ‘The Ranee of Zabalon’ (ranee being the wife of a rajah).
“The Fleet’s Lit Up” was a theatrical performance, advertised as a “musical frolic” and a “Naughtical Musical Play,” first performed in 1938 at the original London Hippodrome, produced and directed by George Black. Such an enormous success, it ran for 199 performances.Its title was a variant of the then famous words spoken the year before by Royal Navy Lieutenant Commander Tommy Woodrooffe and BBC’s Deputy Director of Outside Broadcasting, who, from the deck of HMS Nelson, had exclaimed several times consecutively, “The Fleet is all lit up!” in celebration of the illuminated vessels present for the Coronation Fleet Review by King George VI, 20 May 1937.The story line: Horatio Roper is an Admiralty clerk, Polly Brown is a saucy nursemaid, Jack Prentice is a Lieutenant in the Navy, and all three start out at the Round Pond in Kensington Gardens, from where they visit the Seahorses Night Club. At the club they are involved in a dream-sequence flashback to 1738, where their good ship “Seahorse” is in battle with a pirate ship headed by the pirate queen, Mary Read. After this they are cruising in the “Seahorse” only to be kidnapped by the Ranee of Zabalon and carried off to her palace. Other scenes involve a ballet in a newspaper office, a cabaret sequence, and a finale depicting the Spithead review.The playwright was Vivian John Herman Ellis, CBE (1903-1996), a popular English musical comedy composer. He became well known in the London West End theatre community for providing the music and collaborating in the production of a large number of musical shows, from 1925 to 1958. Ellis dominated the musical theatre of the 1930s with up to three shows running most years of the decade.The producer was George Black (1890-1945), a British theatrical impresario who controlled many entertainment venues during the 1930s-1940s and who was a pioneer of the motion-picture business. In 1928, Black moved to London and took over the management of GTC (General Theatre Corporation), which ran a chain of theatres, cinemas and dance halls. He also took over the management of the London Palladium, which was the flagship of the corporation. The Hippodrome, London in Leicester Square, Brighton Hippodrome and Blackpool Opera House were also under his control. The Fleet’s Lit Up (1938) was the first show he produced in London.
Russian Far East
Pioneering Navigation and Commerce
Early Steam Ships
On the Amur and Shilka Rivers
Two Primary Source Manuscript Diaries
Of an English Engineer
Contracted by the Amoor Shipping Company
Includes a Rare 1858 Map
of the Amur River
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, Chita, Sretensk, Blagoveshchensk, TransBaikal villages, 17 May 1861 – 23 September 1880. Two manuscript journals of an English Engineer in Russian Far East, contracted to test and repair some of the pioneering steamships on the Rivers Amur and Shilka, and other important works in the Trans-Baikal region, beginning his work some 24 years before the founding of the Eastern Siberian Inland Navigation Company, and interacting several notables who were involved in the development projects. 8vo. The earliest volume comprises 113 pages of manuscript entries dating from 17 May 1861 to 22 July 1861 and then a few pages from and then from 1 January 1868 to 22 May 1870, with a tipped-in folding map of the Amur River. The subsequent volume contains 135 pages in manuscript and dates from 14 August 1876 to 23 September 1880. Cloth over marbled boards. Volumes measure approximately 19 x 24 cm and 17 x 20 cm, respectively. Map measures approximately 46 x 20 cm. Wear to boards, hinges loose, otherwise internally clean, an exceedingly scarce and early primary source account of early developments of steam navigation in the Far East of Russia.
This account is very early for the region, particularly the inner reaches of the Amur river and its tributaries, where there were scarce inhabitants or even visitors, and thus are even fewer surviving manuscript accounts. It pre-dates the founding of the important “Eastern Siberian Inland Navigation Company” which would be founded in 1885, twenty-four years after the writer began his pioneering work. It also pre-dates the Trans-Siberian Railway which would be built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers personally appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas (later Tsar Nicholas II).
The writer’s arrival occurs only three years after the Aigun Treaty in 1858, through which the area north of the Amur belonging to the Manchu Qing dynasty since the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk was suddenly ceded to Russia. The Amur River has formed Russia’s border with China since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and the 1860 Treaty of Peking.
A folding map compiled in 1858 according to contemporary Russian sources, delineates the winding route of the Amur River throughout the Russian-Chinese borderlands, from Lake Baikal, to the mountainous Transbaikal region, to the Sea of Okhotsk snd the Strait of Tartary. The map shows the combined geographical discoveries of M. A. Peschurof [Peskchurof] of the Russian Imperial Navy, KFSH (Lieutenant of Corps of Naval Navigators) Ensign Shenurin, Vesilief, G. Radde, Ensign Usolzoff, Pargachevski, and Lieut G. M. Permikin. [Lieutenant Peshchurof had made astronomical observations when he served as part of Admiral Putiatin’s journey up the Amur 1855. In the same year, Shenurin, Raebsky and Chikachef travelled by land from Nikolayevsk (Nikolayevsk-on-Amur) to Udsk or Ayan, and then to Yakutsk in the Russian Far East. In the summer of 1856 Usoltzof made a journey to the source of the Gilui and to the Dzeya, beginning his expedition at Ust Strelka, with the provisions being sent from Nerchinsk on rafts down the river.]Following are some close-up cropped views of the map:
The writer is a skilled engineer and has taken a contract with the Amur Shipping Company, one of the oldest industrial enterprises of the Russian Far East, and its successor, Amur Shipping Company Partnership. Its history is closely connected with emergence and development of navigation in Amur River.
He holds a supervisory role with others reporting to him. He is given charge of one of the earliest steamers on the Amur River. He pays out wages, makes necessary purchases, and is important enough to be invited to the occasional soirée. Those under his direction number in the hundreds. On 3 May 1879 he writes, “[steamships] Emma & Zea left hearly in morning, sent all things on board Andre and left with 300 workmen at 5,20 PM with strong winds downward – stoped 25 verses from Stretensky at 7.20 PM.” And on 2 May 1880, “Left on André 500 workmen left at 1 PM found not lesse than 5 feet of water passed.”
His skill also appears to be in high demand, as another firm tries to recruit him from time to time. We can deduce from the volumes that he learned the trade from an early age, presumably the family trade, and didn’t get a high formal education, owing to the spelling errors throughout. As such, he is a skilled engineer with a wide range of talents; he is sought after and respected for his work. He is married, and his wife immigrates to Russia in 1868, where they begin a family together.
The writer seems to be English, as he returns to London after his many years in Russia, although he may have family connections in America. Further research is warranted. He co-operates particularly well with the American Captain Norwick, who comes to him for all sorts of supplies. The two also exchange ideas concerning a ship repair. The two are clearly on friendly terms when the writer spends Christmas Eve at Captain Mr. and Mrs. Norwick’s home in 1868. For reasons undescribed though likely to do with his contract, on 22 January 1869, the writer “told Captain Nordwick [Norwick] not possible to do any more private work, paid him 51 pds [poods] for same.” He also remarks on American sailors’ behavior upon their arrival at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur. On 22 June he notes having received many letters from home, many in which the news came of the death R. Smith. Evidently a notable man, who so many felt compelled to tell about, he is quite possibly “Raccoon” John Smith (1784-1868) Tennessee, an early leader in the Restoration Movement who worked primarily among the Baptists in Kentucky.
1 June 1861: The writer signs contract with company, given charge of steamship Nicolas:
The writer is working for the Amur Shipping Company:
There are numerous important persons named in the volume, most of which the writer has direct contact with. These include, but may not be limited to the following:
• Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (1809-1881), who on 5 September 1847 was appointed Governor-General of Irkutsk and Yeniseysk (Eastern Siberia).
• Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), Lieutenant General of Trans-Baikal, who was very much involved with the earliest trials and the development of expeditions on the Amur, having been appointed by HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia to lead special assignments.
• Archbishop St. Innocent, born in 1797, whose diocese beginning in 1853 was extended to include the vast region of Yakutsk, a Russian port city on the Lena River, in east Siberia.
• Captain Norwick, who commanded the steamship Amoor on the Amur River as early as 1858, having been commissioned by the Russian Governor, Rear Admiral Kazakevitch for an inland passage up the Amur, departing from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur 5 August 1858.
• Admiral Chestakoff, the Russian Minister of Marine, and was later involved in a reconnaissance mission during the British Occupation of Komundo, Japan, in 1885-1887.
• General Skolkoff, an Admiral, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, and chief of the Emperor’s personal Naval Staff, who was at the time initiating the construction of a new factory at Khabarovsk.
• Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882), a senior captain of a squadron in the Russian Imperial Army, who is widely credited as being the “father of steam-powered ship tactics” during the 19th century. He was the one who met with the Americans in October 1863 during the American embassy’s Official Mission to Russia.
• Freeman, presumably being S.W.K. Freeman who made a survey of the Manchurian coastline around 1855, which was published in 1861.
The official date of opening of the navigation on the Amur is considered the 14 (27) of May of 1854. On that day, following the order of the governor general of Eastern Siberia, N.N. Muravyov, the first Far Eastern steamship “Argun” left the Shilkinsky plant with a military float, and its captain was A.S. Sgibnev. The first steamships on the Amur were state, rather low-power, low-speed and low-efficient. However, the Amur River began to accept vessels made of iron early on, unlike the western basins where navigation appeared much earlier and began with a wooden fleet. Only some domestic vessels had wooden hulls: boilers and machines for them were ordered from the western countries, and hulls from wood were constructed at the Amur shipyards, more frequently in Blagoveshchensk. In the years of settlement of Priamurye, all transportations of mail and state freights were carried out by the vessels of the Siberian military flotilla. But it became more and more obvious that it was necessary to have a dedicated and locally-owned river transport enterprise on the Amur River. “Amurskaya Companiya” (Amur Company) was the first of such enterprises in 1858.
Later, to arrange of the passenger-and-mail service by the Amur River between the communities of Sretenskoe and Nikolaevsk, from Khabarovka by the Ussuri, by Lake Khanka to Kamen-Rybolov post there was a shipping company “Benardaki and Co” founded, later named “Amur Shipping Company Partnership”. The charter of “Amur Shipping Company Partnership” was most highly approved on 18 September 1871 to arrange the urgent steamship service of the Amur basin. The establishment of the partnership was supported by the government. In addition, along the Amur, the Ussuri and the Zeya there were organized special towing lines, mainly for floating and transporting timber. In 1871, the partnership bought 9 state steamships belonging to the Naval Ministry. During the 1872 navigation, 13 steamships of the partnership had already been operating. They were “Zeya”, “Onon”, “Ingoda”, “Chita”, “Songgachi”, “General Ditmarkh”, “Telegraph”, “Lena”, “Ussuri-1”, “Ussuri-2”, “Nikolaevsk”, “Konstantin”, “General Korsakov” – several of these being named in the present diaries. From 1876 to 1885 the chairman of the partnership board was the privy councilor, Neronov, who had done much for the development and the profitable work of Amur Shipping Company Partnership.
Due to the opened intensive navigation by the Amur River and its tributaries, the relations between various communities of the area quickened; the settlement of Priamurye by immigrants from the Central Russia intensified; trade, gold mining and forest industry began to take off. It was of great importance for the shipping company development that the cargoes by the Amur River were transported free of charge.
“… Governer [Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky] on board to visite Youzery”:
“General Korsakoff [Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich] was quite satisified with all of my works…”
Supplies for Bootakoof [Admiral Grigory Butakov]:
“Private work for Chestakoff [Russian Minister of Marine] on his locomotives:
The earliest diary entries, 17 May to 22 July 1861, provide an exceedingly scarce and perhaps the only surviving primary source manuscript account of the earliest developments of steamship service on the Russian Amur River. The writer is employed by the historically important Amur Shipping Company and visiting little-inhabited settlements, some of which are principle cities in our present-day.
He is first based near Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, testing and working on new steamships on the Amur River, and its estuary at the Sea of Okhotsk. The early steamship navigation endeavors were initially intended for mail and communications between remote villages, although it quickly becomes apparent that its value was seen for developing commerce. Notable passengers include Governor General of Siberia Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky and Archishop Innocent.
Nikolayevsk-on-Amur had only been founded in 1850 by Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy, the small Russian settlement then named Nikolayevsky Post, after Tsar Nicholas I.
The settlement quickly became one of the main economic centres on the Pacific coast of the Russian Empire, in fact becoming Russia’s main Pacific harbour (replacing Petropavlovsk) in 1855 after the Siege of Petropavlovsk of 1854. It was granted town status and renamed Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, when in October 1856 Primorskaya Oblast was established. Admiral Vasily Zavoyko had supervised the construction of a naval base there a few months earlier. The town emerged as an important commercial harbour; however, due to navigational difficulties caused by the sandbanks in the Amur estuary and because sea ice made the harbour unusable for five months each year, the main Russian shipping activities in the Pacific transferred to the better situated Vladivostok in the early 1870s. The town remained the administrative centre of this region until 1880, when the governor relocated to Khabarovsk.
At the start of the first volume, in the morning of 17 May 1861, the writer is working on a steamship’s casing. He gets steam on board but not on the engine. He discusses the wedding of a Mr. Newser [presumably Neuser] which he will soon attend, then returns to his work, setting frames for a barge.
Two days later, 19 May 1861, his location is revealed. He is working on the Amur River, noting in his entry, “… found Amoor still rising, boat only leeked 1/0 mil in 24 hours, told Mr Norton that Barre had called him… Pollock and myself would bear witness of the same. Purgachesky endeavored to convince Pollock he did not know I wanted to stay in Company service but he told him differently.” The following day again his Russian manager causes trouble and undermines him, this time “Purgachesky caused water to be let in to Barge… with it all fisherman taken off steamer without me knowing it gone for good.” [Interesting to note, already the commerce of fishing around Nikolayevsk-on-Amur seems to have been a consideration for the early steamships.]
On the 22nd, he reports, “West River open at 12 Midday steamer Zee in sight, gave my resignation to Purgachesky. Zee landed passengers at 5 PM in a small boat Kozakaurich. Admiral arrived in Zee with much news. Agent spoke to me in evening asking me on what termes I wanted for this year told him it was too late I had given my word to Mr Chase.”
It seems he was well respected in the field and even sought after, as the following day, the company agent wanted to withdraw his letter of resignation, offering him 300 R per month to stay. He informed a Mr. Hayounios [?], presumably connected to Mr. Chase who had just offered him employment the day before, and Hayounios warned him that the agent had no authority to offer such a wage. Said agent was dismissed the same day.
On 24 May, he receives 3 letters from his wife, dated December 1860, January and February 1861; he learns of the American Civil War that had just begun in April; and he confirms that he cannot withdraw his letter, and thus has finally settled the matter of his employment.
On 25 May he reports, among other matters, that the Governor was onboard the steamship Zee [Governor General of Siberia, Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky, was most likely returning from an important meeting held 14-15 Feburary 1861 concerning considering a proposal by the Minister of Finance on trade with China, specifically on allowing the import of Cantonese tea into the Russian Empire] “… told Agent required three sailors and boatsman continuoly a board – said he would see to it. Zee left at 1 P.M with Governer on board to visite Youzery [Ozery, Ozyory, a town in Moscow Oblast]. at 1.30 P.M lighted fire on board actionary started Engines. at 3 PM worked remarkably well all joint tight stoped at 6 PM Engine with full steam made 76 revolutions a minute. Agent dissired Carpenter to work to morrow. wrote to my wife’. “
[The Governor he is referring to is Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (1809-1881), who on 5 September 1847 was appointed Governor-General of Irkutsk and Yeniseysk (Eastern Siberia). His appointment was a subject of much controversy, as it was unusual for a person of his age (only 38 at the time) to be put in charge of such a vast territory. He pursued the exploration and settlement of the territories north of the Amur River, often utilizing the help of political exiles. Many of his actions were aimed to expand commerce in the Far Eastern region. An expedition in 1855 transported the first Russian settlers to the Amur’s estuary. Muravyov started negotiations with the Chinese about that time, a border along the Amur River. During the last expedition of 1858, Muravyov concluded the Treaty of Aigun with the Qing official Yishan. The Treaty of Aigun expanded by the provisions of the Beijing Treaty of 1860, which granted Russia right to the Ussuri krai and southern parts of Primorye. Muravyov-Amursky made numerous attempts to settle the shores of the Amur River. These attempts were mostly unsuccessful as very few people wanted to move to the Amur voluntarily. Muravyov had to transfer several Baikal Cossacks detachments to populate the area. He also attempted to organize steamboat transportation on the Amur (illustrated in this primary source diary account) and to build a postal road. As the main objection of the St. Petersburg officials against taking over the left bank of the Amur was lack of people to defend the new territories, Muravyov-Amursky successfully petitioned to free Nerchinsk peasants from mandatory works in the ore mines. With these people, a 12,000 corps of Amur Cossacks was formed and used to settle some of the lands, the military core being the Cossacks transferred from the Transbaikalia. He retired from his post of Governor General in 1861 (the same year as the writer’s report) after his proposal to divide Eastern Siberia into two separate governorates general was declined. He was subsequently appointed as a member of the State Council. is seen as Governor General Mouravieff in American newspapers of the period.]
On 26 May he mentions the Bishop [Archbishop Innocent], and on the 27th “Honkey, Bishop and several visitors their [sic] went on a little trip with Amoor Steamer…” He also gets report that the steamer engine was not up to par with its revs per minute, noting that he had advised the agent of the inadequacy one month previous.
[Bishop Innocent, born in 1797, was elevated to the rank of archbishop in April 1850. Two years later his diocese extended to include the vast region of Yakutsk, a Russian port city on the Lena River, in east Siberia. In September 1853 he arrived in the city of Yakutsk, where he would serve for many years. Archbishop St. Innocent was summoned to St. Petersburg twice (in 1860 and 1861), as the Holy Synod was to approve his proposal for transferring the See from Yakutsk to Amur and to establish vicarages in New Archangel, on the Sitka Island and Yakutsk. The bishop made archpastoral and missionary trips along the Amur and Ussuri Rivers.]
On May 28th we learn that Mr. Hayounios[?] is an interpreter, and on June 1st the writer has a newborn son, and finally signs his contract, which gives him full charge of steamer Nicolas effective the next day. [Steamer Nicholas I had been launched in 1843 and dismantled in 1856, therefore this steamer ‘Nicholas’ is its successor.] After a celebratory soirée, preparations were made on 3 June 1861 to host a dinner for “60 persons on board Nicolas on her trial trip…”
On the 4th, the writer reports that he “paid a to visit Amoor Company… stoped at Chenerack.”
[Amoor company mentioned by the writer is “Amur Shipping Company,” one of the oldest industrial enterprises of the Russian Far East. Its history is closely connected with emergence and development of navigation in Amur River. The official date of opening of the navigation on the Amur is considered the 14 (27) of May of 1854. On that day, following the order of the governor general of Eastern Siberia, N.N. Muravyov, the first Far Eastern steamship “Argun” left the Shilkinsky plant with a military float, and its captain was A.S. Sgibnev (a settlement on the upper Amur is called after his name).]
In June 1861, the writer would head up several trial voyages and tests for the new steamer Nicolas. On the 6th, the engine was tested and found that the engine worked well, but not the pump. After some adjustments the following day, the reverse occurred; the engine choking but the pump functioning well. On Saturday the 8th he obtained more red lead from Freeman, and candles for the steamer. He also paid off two of the men employed on the steamer the past week.
[Freeman is frequently mentioned in the volume, and provides the writer with wood, iron, etc. S.W.K. Freeman made a survey of the Manchurian coastline around 1855, which was published in 1861, and filed with the Admiralty charts. Perhaps he settled in the area.]
On the 10th, more “running about after articles for trial trip to morrow” and a Mr. Etravo asked him to produce his “certificate of a Englishman.”
The entry of 11 June 1861 reads, “at 9 AM priest blessed steamer Nicolas at 11.30 AM started on trial trip with many officers on board run from Koska to Chinerack in 38 minute Engine at most making 36 revolutions towed Corrinth barge up the last … fell overboard arrived home at about 8 P.M…”
On 13 June 1861, “at 7 AM had a trial trip with English steamer Korzakoff run well made 1 ½ Miles marks 9 minutes up 6 ½ down run round Lena (evidently a small riverside settlement named after the river Lena)… Belegory expressed himself perfectly satisfied gave me 500 R. as also J.P.”
On 14 June 1861 the Korzakoff [steamer] “left for Leman went down as far as Chinierack return in a small boat with Belegory and dined with him got back at 2 PM… got 2 letters from home”. [Leman is the Amur Liman which connects the Sakhalin Gulf of the Sea of Okhotsk with the main body of the Strait of Tartary via the Nevelskoy Strait. “Amur Liman” is often translated as “Amur Estuary” or “Amur Mouth”]
Progress in the town is indicated with the entry of 15 June 1861, “at 1 PM two Briggs and two Schooner arrived got charts from Desrey and sent them to Capt Crely many strangers arrived got some iron from Amoor Company two plates… two angle iron…” The following day supplies are purchased from a Russian merchant’s store, vessels come and go, and “charts are marked.”
The momentum continues from this point, with more brigs and schooners arriving. One of these finds itself “aground in Leman [Amur Liman].” On 19 June the writer “asked Governor for wood certificate to go up river” which was denied.
On 20 June, he reports, “… got three anchors out to pul steamer in shore to get tank to Korzakoff arrived at 4 PM with 14 Bullock and three horses and two barges made 12 verse [verst] per hour going up … left again in two hours to fetch Palonbe in the Leman [Amur Liman]” The following day we find the first mention of Chita, with a steamer from that place arriving, ” Chita steamer arrived said to be only 14 hours from Kissy no mail on board.” [Chita is the last Russian city before the trans-Siberian railway enters China. Mongolia lies even closer to the south.]
A few days later there is mention of Americans in the region, “several fight on shore between American sailors.” On the 25th a fine English steamer arrives. The writer is measuring wood to build a float barge. More English names begin to appear in his entries from here on. A Japanese schooner also appears on scene, the port town slowly becoming recognized abroad.
On 7 July, he notes that he was deemed not responsible for some kind of catastrophe. He also remarks that he “received letter from Amur Comp requesting me to return home…“
On 17 July we find the first mention of the town Nikolayevsky, as he is evidently making a passage for home “… started at 6.30 PM from Nikolavsky droped anchor at 9.15 PM 7 verses [versts] below Sebaek… told Admiral I whould if profitable get the 141 on from Alexandroff for sugar…” On the 20th he left “Meculostky” and stopped at “Kisy” to get some wood. The following day, still searching for wood, he called in at “Sophisk” where he succeeded in obtaining a permit. As he travels, he searches for stations along the Amur, and continues to work on various vessels. This portion of the diary ends on 22 July 1861 as he assesses a paddle wheel and a boiler.
In addition to his main employment the author does a bit of trading on the side. On 3 October 1868 he writes: “Sold Petherick tea 32 bricks for 28 RS”, and on 9 April 1870: “Sold my silver to Zablosky for 1,25.” And on 7 January 1869: “Received from Dïtch 10 Rs for Iron sold of Jew [in] Bienking, and 17 Rs for oven boy Jew, one sailor left work without notice.”
Steamship Nicolas’s first trip voyage, writer visits Amur Company office
“… asked Governor for wood certificate to go up river…
could not give it… Discharging schooner…”
“… started at 6.30 PM from Nikolavsky droped anchor at 9.15 PM…”
Thirty months more of regular diary entries, from December 1867 to May 1870, continue to reveal ongoing development of remote river navigation and access in the remote regions of Southeast Siberia, this time on the Shilka river. We find the writer at Shilka, Sretensk, possibly at Karymskoe, and Blagoveshchensk, all of these being then only modest settlements. He also mentions the Katorga prisoners from Nerchinsk, a group of Polish men performing forced labour.
His work on the pioneering steamships is directly applauded by Lieutenant General of Trans-Baikal, Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), who was very much involved with the earliest trials and the development of expeditions on the Amur, having been appointed by HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia to lead special assignments. He was also approached by General Skolkoff, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, being solicited for a contract to build a new factory at Khabarovsk.
After a page with only two entries from September 1866, the writer begins to record his work in the volume once again, with three entries from November-December 1867, revealing that he remains in the same line of work and is still in Russia. From January 1868 to May 1870 he journals almost daily. We quickly learn that his wife is now living with him in Russia.
Being in a very continental subarctic climate with very cold winters, at times rivers would have a thick frozen crust of ice, and land transportation was facilitated by Russian horses pulling sleds, all of which he describes in the diary. Also being remote, and in fact pioneering the means by which these locales would eventually gain access to goods, throughout the volume, the author is engaged in a constant struggle for parts and labour.
He starts the year 1868 with an ongoing and frustrating search for coal for the steamships. On 1 January 1868 he is “In Bienking by Kaparacky Mill” [possibly referring to Karymskoe, then situated on the left bank of the Ingoda river], waiting for “coals for blacksmith,” and around this time the lack of coals for blacksmith is a common complaint. On 17 January he describes the urgency “told Prodrasky that if I did not soone have coals I should not be able to get Steamers ready, left for Bienking in evening at 5 PM.” He spends quite some time in January working on the Kaparacky mill, hired directly by the government. An important work indeed, soon all hands were employed at on the mill, perhaps rebuilding it, until the end of the month.
Back to working on the vessels, on 23 February he is busy with an iron barge and the steamer Korsakoff. We begin to notice production increasing and quality of materials evolving. On 7 March a transport vessel arrives with 127 horses and the writer procured “streit iron for hoop, iron and steel gone.” On 9 March he is “still” working on large iron and the hull of steamship Korsakoff. The harsh northern winters take their toll on workflow however. As early as 11 March, the writer is contending with freezing waterways, “Obliged to leave off work on hull of Korsakoff to clear ice from under her…” The following day he “Sent 25Rs to Troeven [?] for India Rubber for Korsakoff head or delevery valve…”
Captain Norwick is mentioned several times from this point, and to the end of the volume, the captain requesting steamship boilers and the like, the two being in communication and often collaborating with jobs and supplies.
[A seasoned commander, Captain Norwick commanded the steamship Amoor on the Amur River as early as 1858. He is mentioned in the New York Herald of 20 April 1859, reporting that with the consent of the Russian Governor, Rear Admiral Kazakevitch had commissioned the latter for an inland passage up the Amur, departing from Nikolayevsk-on-Amur 5 August 1858. Evidently the steamship Amoor was American built, as were others. And, at this time, the Russian government possessed a small fleet of 5 steamers on the Amur, 3 of them however being non-operational. These vessels were named Amoor, Shilka, Lena, Nadoshka, and the towboat Argoon. P.V. Kazakevich was the first military governor of Primorsky Krai, at the time called Primor’e. In 1866 he called for a “rapid formation of a maritime settlement” and the next few years he attracted a small group of fishermen from the Caspian Sea to Nikolayevsk, believing that they could transfer their sturgeon fishing skills to the lower Amur. The lack of markets resulted in a short-lived plan.]
On 17 March 1868 we learn that one of his colleagues, Barislatfsky, had gone to Chita, which would become aa more regular occurrence. His entry describes a typical busy day, “Cold, took condenser of Korsakoff to pieces to get under her to repair hull sent a letter to Petherick by Miss Devideva Barishafsky returned from Shita [Chita], gave in Estimation for Material for 1869,” Two days later he writes, “Sent money for soap and candles for Petherick and a letter to Soderoff to say his lath was finished Lutz said he expected the repairs of his Steamer to cost 300 Rs I told him not more than 200 in Machine shop very wharm day, not finished cleaning under Korsakoff for 1 patch more spoke long about it.”
[Chita (formerly known as Chitinsk) is a city and the administrative center of present-day Zabaykalsky Krai, in southeast Siberia in Russia, located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers. In the mid-19th century, Chitinsk became one of the most important strongholds in the development of the Amur River region. In an effort to strengthen Transbaikalia and on the urgent recommendation of the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky, Emperor Nicholas I created the Transbaikal Cossack army of six horse regiments with a military administrative center in Chitinsk. In 1851, with a population of 659 people, Chita received the status of a town and became the center of the newly created separate Zabaykalsky (Trans-Baikal) Oblast. When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one, also wooden, church. He estimated Chita’s population at under 1,000, but predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. Indeed, the rapid growth and development of Chita began. In 1863, the population totaled 3,140 people and by 1885 Chita’s population had reached 5,728. By 1897 it had increased to 11,848. Still then, most of the buildings in the town were wooden.]
On 2 April, he mentions water being on the Chilka and bad roads, this suggesting that he is posted in the small settlement of Shilka, situated on the banks of the river for which it was named. [Shilka was settled in the 18th century, but would not gain town status in 1951, not for another century after the writer’s time there. Today it is the administrative center of Shilkinsky District in Zabaykalsky Krai.] Again on the 7th, Barislafsky returned from Chita, which is only some 248 kilometers (154 mi) west of Shilka. On 16 April, he remarks “water rising in Chilka” [Shilka river]. On the 22nd, he is pleased to have found a crank part for the steamer Korsakoff which came from Irkvotsk [Irkutsk], and on the 23rd the “Shilka shook her ice for about 2 verse [versts].” The following day the “river opened with high water [and] iron barge leeked but little…”, and soon enough the same barge ran aground.
He occasionally visits Stretchensky [Sretensk] which at the time was but another small settlement, usually to test the repairs on the steamships. He writes on 11 May 1868, “Zea and myself on board [Korsakoff] went to Stretchensky all worked well, gone to Somoff…” He also remarks that “16 Gov’t barges from Shita [Chita]… all work stoped for cleaning factory by orders of captain.”
[Sretensk is a town and the administrative center of Sretensky District in Zabaykalsky Krai, located on the right bank of the Shilka River (Amur basin), 385 kilometers (239 mi) east of Chita. Founded in 1689, between October 1914 and 1921, it accommodated the Sretensk prisoner of war camp, and finally in 1926 it was granted town status.]
On 20 May, the writer receives accolades by none other than Russian statesman Lieutenant General Korsakoff of Trans-Baikal. He writes in his diary, “Saw Korsakoff off at 10.30… was told by G C Shoulman that it was reported that I wanted to leave told him I would not leave before my contract was out and that was a long way… was told by him that G. Korsakoff was quite satisfied with all my works and doing…”
[Korsakov Mikhail Semenovich (1826-1871), in 1848 was appointed official on special assignments to HH Muravyov, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia. At the beginning of 1849, Korsakov was sent on a secret mission to the Sea of Okhotsk to meet the Baikal transport sent for reconnaissance at the mouth of the Amur. In 1854, already in the rank of lieutenant colonel Korsakov, in Irkutsk, he disposed of all the preparatory work for equipping the Russian expedition to Amur; having traveled along the Amur along with Muraviev himself, he supervised the supply of Ayansk port and the coast of Kamchatka with all the necessary supplies. In December 1854, Korsakov outfitted the second expedition to Amur, with which he sailed along the Amur in May 1855, after which he was appointed commander of the troops concentrated at the mouth of the Amur.]
An entry in June reveals that convict labour had begun in the new steamship driven commerce, those from Nerchinsk. He writes, “June. Wens 10. Much rain but still low water in Shilka [river] was told a certain convict a gents son had run away from Nertchinsk, a new set of convicts “
[Katorga, as it was called, was a system of penal labor in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Prisoners were sent to remote penal colonies in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia and Russian Far East where voluntary settlers and workers were never available in sufficient numbers. The prisoners had to perform forced labor under harsh conditions. In the area of the Nerchinsk Mining District [ru], which encompassed a large part of eastern Transbaikalia (today’s Chita Oblast), labor was used for mining lead ore and silver on tsar’s private lands (so called cabinet lands) and in foundries, also for wine-making and salt-processing factories. From 1850 to 1890, katorga labor was used at Kara gold fields and for the construction of prison buildings. According to George Kennan, “a few of the Decembrist conspirators of 1825” and “thousands of Polish insurgents” from their unsuccessful insurrection of 1863″ were transported to the Nerchinsk silver-mining district.]
An entry on 1 July 1868 reveals that Archbishop Innocent had paid a visit to the area again, travelling by steamer on the Amur river of course. And on the 6th “Governor Korsackoff arrived & went to Stretentchsky on Ingoda.” The following day “Korsackoff left on board Shita for Nikolayevsk.”
On 7 July the writer announces that a carpenter had finished his house.
As more steamships are built, they continue to be named after local towns and the rivers. For example, steamers are named Shilka, Onon, Ingoda, Nikolayevsk, the latter “arrived with 21 poods of gold.”
On 10 August we find that the town of Blagoweshen [Blagoveshchensk] is now a port of call, this place situated at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers. A miscellaneous note at the end of the volume has for a heading “Wanted at Blagowcshensky [Blagoveshchensk]” and is followed by a list of items to bring to Admiral Bootakoff.
[Although Russian settlers had lived in the area as early as 1644 and were known as “Hailanpao” the Chinese name for the city), the present-day city began in 1856 as the military outpost of Ust-Zeysky; this name means settlement at the mouth of the Zeya River in Russian. Tsar Alexander II gave approval for the founding of the city in 1858 as the seat of government for the Amur region, to be named Blagoveshchensk (literally “the city of good news”) after the parish church which was dedicated to the Annunciation. According to Blagoveshchensk authorities, by 1877 the city had some 8,000 residents, with merely 15 foreigners (presumably, Chinese) among them.]
An entry on November 1868 mentions the Polish convicts, “… Order from Shita [Chita] through Barislafsky to send away the last three Poles prostrated against it, convict received 250 lashes…”
A change of routine occurs in the early part of the year, being commissioned for a contract. The 13 February 1869 entry reads, “Got private work for Chestakoff on his locomotive.” [Admiral Chestakoff was the Russian Minister of Marine, and was later involved in a reconnaissance mission during the British Occupation of Komundo, Japan, in 1885-1887.]
It seems that Captain Norwick is beginning to lose favour. On 10 March 1869, an entry states, “Nordwick had a dispute with Captains through them not been willing to undersign papers of receiving materials.” And on 16 April, “Lutz bought Nordwick’s house.” In spite of the situation, the writer continues to trade with Norwick.
The author’s work appears to be arduous and unrelenting. One of the few references to recreation involves a horse race, with the author writing on 18 March 1869, “Great race for 1000Rs against 200 with Samsonowich and Golbert the later won, my horse took fright.”
On 14 September 1869 begins a revealing passage, including the summary of the writer’s firsthand conversation with General Skolkoff, the Russian Emperor’s Aide-de-Camp, who was initiating the construction of a new factory at Khabarovsk, and evidently sought the writer’s involvement in the important project The event unfolds as follows, “General Ditmare arrived and left on Onon at 4 PM he going to Kara and Onon to the Amoor. Colonel Gertz arrived to review material in harbour.
15 September: Began, With Col Gertz to weight materials, Nicolaefsky arrived at 5 PM, expecting Skolkoff.
16 September: Weighing materiale of Harbour was sent on board Nicolaefsky found boiler a little burnt other things all well.
17 September: Fine day finished Materiales Admiral Skolkoff arrived on Zea at 9 PM.
18 September: Admiral out in harbour had a long talk with him said he wishes to have this factory in Kabarofsky [Khabarovsk] Left on Zea at 11. AM for Brenking Nordwick not in Uniform to Receive him
1 October: Zea returned from Brenking, saw Barislofsky told me Korsakoff wished him to speak with me about contract got a letter from Barre”.
[General Skolkoff is described in The Times of 14 May 1874 as ‘an Admiral, Aide -de-Camp General, and chief of the Emperor’s personal Naval Staff.’ After the 1858 Treaty of Aigun, the Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka, named after seventeenth century Russian adventurer Yerofey Khabarov who is best known for his exploring the Amur river region and his attempts to colonize the area for Russia. The post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880. In 1893, it was given its present name of Khabarovsk.]
On 2 October 1869 his entry reveals Captain Nordwick’s involvement in convict conveyance, “… Orders from Zagaring to send all convicts to Kara, Koskawich arrived at 6 PM all well, Nordwick sent Telegram to Governor for permission to retain convicts.”
And on 3-4 November 1869, more dealings with Cpatain Nordwick, “Saw Barrislafsky asked him about boiler for fire engine, told me it was for harbour not for him. Told Nordwick of same when he said we had a round one which would do for us I told him it would be of no use but he thought different, asked for bricklayer to see to ovens of factory and my house… Much ice in Chilka no bricklayer sent to see to oven, asked Nordwick about 4 large tubes for water in factory in case of fire.”
So much remains to be learned from this volume, which continues until 20 May 1870. Before concluding, the writer documents the end of his current work and an imminent relocating, “11 May 1870. Had an interview privately with Gen. Karsakoff was well received. Thurs 12 Gave machine shop over to Clotz, low water in Chilka [Shilka river]… Sund 22 Baptized Maria and prayer meeting in my house. Leave to morrow if can get house all packed up.”
… crank for Korsakoff which came from Irkvotsk [Irkutsk]…
Nerchinsk mining district prisoners used as labour:
Death of R. Smith:
The second volume begins six years later, and continues to yield fascinating information from the formative years of Russia’s Far East communications. The writer is by this time a very seasoned engineer, continuously gaining respect from the leaders directly connected to the Russian monarchy. More notables are mentioned.
With the heading “Journale Andre 1876” this volume begins 14 August 1876, once again working in the Trans-Baikal region. Andre, sometimes seen as Andree, is a new steamship which the writer was testing and perfecting for navigation in the complex and challenging river system. The writer testing the performance of an engine by taking a steamship up river. On the 20th he remarks, “Helena arrives, entered protest”, perhaps referring to events brewing in the conflict between Russian Workers and Intelligenty, which would ultimately culminate into the Kazan Square Demonstration in December the same year.
Some details from a cursory look through this volume:
Low water levels in May 1877 cause some hardships, and we also learn that some form of lochs have been constructed on the Shilka river. On 4 May 1877, “Ditmare a ground just outside of locks. Could not move further water in Schilka Standing… a little rain.” The following day again the writer was “out at harbour at 7 AM found Ditmare aground and all asleep 12 men waiting, returned to town & sent out 20 more men… at 4 PM out again at harbour and brought Ditmare to Stretensky, at 7 PM informed Pauloloff she was quite ready. water stoped rising. Water standing.” On 6 May, there seems to be hope for progress, “Water rising 1″ per day got all lugage on board Ditmare… Telegrame from Skapalzine that only 2′ of water in Schilka.” On 7 May he equips the vessel, “Left on board Ditmare at 1,50 PM with 220 men 500 Poods Sukary [dates] 5 cask of Spirits, 2 Verses [versts] above Mongady found 3 ft of water but concluded nearer shore to have 3 1/2 of water. Stoped at village Ouledgesh.” An arduous procedure ensues the following few days to get the ship afloat and on its voyage, requiring continuous stops to measure water levels and adjust its path accordingly, this interjected with periods of waiting for water to rise.
On 16 May 1877 he reports, “Andree again a trial trip upward 4 verses [versts] with Director on board all worked well and all quite satisfiyed with Steamer Andree…”.
Another run of locomotive work begins on 17 January 1879. He writes, “Work finished and packed up all machinery for André at 11. A.M. Lebotking ordered 1 sleigh for me to morrow morning himself left at 11 PM Feodoroff drunk.
18 January. Lower Demetry Locomobile again started after 3 days & night repaires. Myself with Stop valve for Andree left Priska at 9. AM. arrived at Residense at 9. PM found Lebotking Mykoff & Jelvettre here
19 January. Boiler of Nicolaefsky and frames ready loaded for Priska. Leboking & Mykoff left at 11 PM….
27 January. 22 of cold Feodoroff arrived here at 9.AM Told me le locomobile of lower saw mill was brought back to shop to change all tubes
28 January. 21 of degrees Spirit arrived from Stretensky Doctore & F returned at 11. PM the worse for wine.”
On 29 March 1879 he describes a catastrophe in Sretensk, “At 2 AM Fire broke out in old stores in market place Stretensky and burnt down 19 shops and hotel got most of my things out and took lodgings by Pauveloff at 7 AM all this time on Schilka [Shilka River].”
On 30 August 1879 he writes: “Bootakoff name day he went to see barge in Platoke returned at 12 MD said would be finished to day.” The writer is speaking of Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882) who appears to have been in the region for some months following.
On 21 November 1879 the diary reveals that not all men were keen on his presence: “Bootakoff again insulted by Goshcoff,” and the following day, “Bootakoff left to complain in Albazine.”
[Admiral Grigory Butakov (1820-1882), known as “Captain Bootakoff from Oslaba,” was a senior captain of a squadron in the Russian Imperial Army. Butakov is widely credited as being the father of steam-powered ship tactics during the 19th century. He was the one who met with the Americans in October 1863 during the American embassy’s Official Mission to Russia, led by Hon. G.V. Fox. Samuel D. Tillman, Chairman of the American Institute Polytechnic Association had invited the Rear Admiral S. Lessoffsky to a discussion about iron-clad vessels, including iron plating. Lessoffsky was unable to attend and sent Butakov in his place. This was a significant event and garnered attention in Europe as well, being reported in London Standard Newspaper, the Freeman’s Journal from Dublin, and possibly other news. In 1881 Butakov assumed the role of Commander-in-Chief of the Port of St. Petersburg.]
The volume ends with a short list of repairs made to the steamer Andrée, and a more substantial list of the same for steamer Djinlinder in the years 1878-79.
With the last entries in the second volume, written in August 1880, he travels via Tomsk and St Petersburg, and after a quick passage arrives by rail in London at the now historic Cannon Street Road. He is immediately taken ill with a fever, from which he is still suffering, under the care of a Dr Vickers, as the journal ends on 23 September 1880.
Of added interest, this volume features some quick gold-digging expeditions made by the writer in his spare time. [Russia has a handful of major gold producing regions in the east; Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Magadan, Amur, and Chelyabinsk. Krasnoyarsk in particular is one of the more prolific gold mining regions in the world.]
He writes on 15 December 1878, “Left for gold washing at 10AM with doctore” and the following day “Arrived at Vassiloff gold washing at 1 midnight nighted by Doctore Footerine here but left at 9 P.M.”
Again on 11 January 1880, he sets out to find the precious mineral, though it seems that the company was involved as one of the ships were used for the voyage, “Nerpine left at 10 AM for Residense Larring at 4 PM for procuring new place for gold 120 verses [versts] from here,” and a week later: “Larring returned from seeking gold but found none.” Another attempt is made on 18 February 1880, “Nerpine directore returned at 4 PM from Alexzy. gold washing good gold found at last years place To day left good to transport to gold washings.“
Fire in Sretensk market:
Brief history of Chita and area:
The writer is for a time in the Chita area, in present-day Zabaykalsky Krai. Chita was incorporated as a town in 1851 – only 10 years before the present journals begin and the writer arrives in the region. He was employed by wealthy Russian and Siberian pioneers of steamship navigation on the Amur River. Chita was a mining center in a region that was only just beginning to develop, largely due to the Jewish exiles known as Decembrists, who had settled there. They educated the small Russian population and are responsible for the increase in trade, which was primarily timber, gold and uranium, all harvested from the region.
The settlement of Chita, in Siberia’s Trans-Baikal region, is known since 1653, but it had been overshadowed by Nerchinsk until the twentieth century. Since the end of the 17th century, this settlement was known successively as Chitinskoye plotbishche, Chitinskaya sloboda, Chitinskiy fort, Chitisnkoye settlement, and simply Chitinsk.
In the early 1820s, there were 300 residents and 26 houses. After 1825 several (some say approximately 85) of the Decembrists suffered exile to Chita, and thus, Chita is on occasion called the “City of Exiles”. Many of the Decembrists were intellectuals and members of the middle class, and consequently their arrival had a positive effect.
In 1836, the Russian Tsar, Nicholas I allowed some Jews of the Pale of Settlement to establish themselves permanently in Siberia and become, unusually in Jewish history, agriculturists. A notable migration of Jews to the Chita region occurred in the second half of the 19th century, due to building of silver plants and mines in Transbaikal, and its closeness to the Russian border with China which helped the newly built townlets enjoy an international trade. There were four ranks of Jewish immigrants allowed in Transbaikal, divided into top traders, specialists or craftsmen; soldiers (former cantonists and their families); and political exiles. As a result, most of the Jewish population which moved to Chita and other townlets were male.
The well-educated exiles made an effort to educate the citizens of Chita and pursue trade. Through these efforts, the City would eventually become a major trading portal in Siberia, particularly since the natural resources of the area included timber, gold and uranium.
When Richard Maack visited the city in 1855, he saw a wooden town, with one, also wooden, church. He estimated Chita’s population at under 1,000. He predicted that the city would soon experience fast growth, due to the upcoming annexation of the Amur valley by Russia. Indeed, by 1885 Chita’s population had reached 5,728, and by 1897 it increased to 11,500.
Located at the confluence of the Chita and Ingoda Rivers and on the Trans-Siberian Railway, 900 kilometers (560 mi) east of Irkutsk, today, Chita is a city and the administrative center of present-day Zabaykalsky Krai, in southeast Siberia in Russia.
Steamship building on Lake Baikal had also only just begun, but unlike the iron-clad Amur River steamships, these vessels were made of wood.
In 1823 the engineer-mechanic Rozen put the idea about steamship building on Lake Baikal into mind. But the Departments of Navy and Budget didn’t support the project. Nikita Fedorivich Myasnikov went at a hard task in organization of the steamship building here. Nikita Fedorivich Myasnikov was a merchant belonging to the top guild from Rostov, commercial counselor. He was the son of Siberian millionaire Fedor Borisovich Myasnokov and also the gold-miner, owner of distilleries and water mills.
Myasnikov petitioned the Ministry of Finance for the accordance of a privilege to him for shipping organization on the Siberian rivers. On 8 December 1839 such privilege was given to him. It admitted the exclusive right to found and to support the shipping company on Lake Baikal and rivers Ob’, Tobol, Irtysh, Yenisei, Lena and its tributaries for a 10-year period.
The place for steamships building was chosen in 18 verst (63 000 ft) above Irkutsk on the left bank of the Angara River by village Grudinino. On 29 March 1843 the foundation of the first steamship’s wooden hull was laid, and on 15 September the first ship, named Nicholas I, was launched. It was 35 m long, 4 m wide and 8 m with paddle guards. The barge for haulage was built together with the steamship. The second ship Successor Cesarevitch (Crown Prince) and the second barge were laid after the first ship’s launching. …..
‘Emperor Nicholas I’ was damaged during the storm but repaired in 1854, and then it got burnt and stripped down in 1856. ‘Crown Prince’ maintained a regular service on Lake Baikal, but it went down in 1860. Myasnokovs didn’t have any ships more, but the shipping company’s activity continued on Lake Baikal, the Rivers Angara and Selenga. D. Benardaki, a retired lieutenant, participant of Amur campaign, built two ships in Listvyanichnoe in 1858: the first was named for the sake of governor-general – Muravjev-Amurskij, and he gave his own name to the second ship without false modesty – Benardaki.
The Eastern-Siberian Inland Navigation Company on Lake Baikal was founded in 1885. The Ministry’s Committee Regulations about the steam navigation on the Angara River was approved on 17 August 1885. This date is deemed to be the day of firm’s establishment.
Vintage Sample Box
Cotton Board Home Trade Department
Manchester, circa 1961. Boxed samples supplied by the Cotton Board Home Trade Department, containing cotton samples in seven formats at different stages of production, thirteen unique fabric swatches made from said cotton, each of the samples and swatches accompanied by a text description on a blue card. Together with the original photographic pictorial insert printed recto and verso to illustrate industrial cotton processing and provide statistics to entice commercial buyers. Original blue cardboard box measuring approximately 32 x 16 x 4 cm, with six box compartments within it serving to neatly separate and display the contents, and paper label to front. Wear and pierce marks to box, otherwise in excellent condition, its contents well preserved, an intact and complete item.
Samples show cotton at various stages, including:
• An American Cotton Boll
• Cleaned Cotton (Scutcher Lap)
• Carding (Card Silver)
• a Mule Cop of weft yarn ready for use in a loom shuttle.
• a Ring Tube of weft yarn suitable for warp in the weaving process
• 13 finished woven fabric swatches, most of which are dyed
Statistics printed on the inserted leaf, reveal that in the year 1960, the United Kingdom exported cotton goods amounting to a value of £63,000,000 while local consumers purchased approximately 1,800 million square yards of cotton textiles. Further listing all the countries from where raw cotton and the like was imported, the United Kingdom purchased 822 million lbs. From this, the finished product of cotton textiles exported to Africa, Australia and New Zealand, America, and Western Europe, amounted to 327 million square yards exported.
An astounding 222,720 workers were employed in the United Kingdom Cotton Industry, mostly in Lancashire, but also including the neighbouring districts of Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Cheshire.NOTE:
Images of the Sample Cotton Boxes May Appear Larger Than Actual Size.
Each Measures approximately 8 x 8 x 4 cm.
The Cotton Board was an organisation to oversee the organisation, research, marketing and promoting the cotton textile industry mainly based in Lancashire and Glasgow. A voluntary Cotton Board was set up in 1940 to “promote the welfare of the industry by internal reorganisation, by the development of export trade, scientific research, propaganda and other means.” The board was given statutory status from 1948 to 1972 under the Industrial Organisation and Development Act 1947, and was known in its last years as the Textile Council. The Board had equal representation from industry and trades unions, with four members each, plus three independent members. It was given the power to levy up to £250,000 a year from the industry. Its headquarters was in Manchester, together with the “Colour, Design and Style Centre”, which became the public face of the board.
Between 1956 and 1962, the Cotton Board organised promotions to try and increase sales of Lancashire cotton within the UK, using generic marks, particularly the slogan “Buy British Cottons” – as seen on the leaf in the present display box. Its initiatives included new methods for utilising labour, recruitment and training, the encouragement of collaboration within the cotton industry, and design innovations. British fashion designs and fabrics were showcased at national and international exhibitions, ranging from an exhibition on the history of the cotton mills and a display of 1960s children’s clothing to soft furnishing promotions at large stores and national fashion shows.
Initiated by the Cotton Industry Act 1959, the Board engaged in a major attempt to reorganise the cotton industry, which entailed “the scrapping of machinery and compensation for redundant workers in the industry, which was carried through with great success and great expedition”. Regrettably, a combination of reduced consumer demand, poor marketing and cheaper Commonwealth imports during the period of reorganisation created, a reduction of confidence in the industry, according to the Board’s chairman Lord Rochdale. This both reduced the amount asked for by industry and invested by the government and resulted in machinery being installed in mills that either closed or became idle. Furthermore, because of the need to replace machinery on a ten-year cycle, idleness was likely to mean that investments would not be recouped.
The Board funded research into cotton fabrics via an industry-wide levy. This was undertaken by the British Cotton Industry Research Association (BCRIA), better known as the Shirley Institute. By the 1960s, research also involved man-made fabrics, whose manufacturers began to pay a research levy to the Cotton Board from 1961. Meanwhile, from 1946, the British Rayon Research Association (BRRA) was formed by the British Rayon Federation and others, to investigate the chemical and physical properties of rayon and rayon fabrics, using a wide range of laboratory and theoretical methods. It became clear that a merger between the BCIRA and BRRA was needed, and in 1961 the two joined together as “The Cotton, Silk, and Man-Made Fibres Research Association in 1961”, still popularly referred to as the Shirley Institute.
In 1967, the Cotton Board was renamed the Textile Council. Between 1967 and 1969, the Textile Council conducted an enquiry into the productivity of the industry, and produced a major report. The report ultimately recommended a move away from cotton import quotas to imposition of tariffs on cotton goods imported from the British Commonwealth and elsewhere, to protect British industries. The recommendation was accepted by Wilson’s Labour government and its Conservative successor. The Textile Council was dissolved in 1971-2, at its own request, as it was felt the work would be better handled by a new voluntary British Textile Council.
|Manuscript Watercolour Map|
Japanese Samurai Horse Breeding Grounds
Ashinazawa – Morioka
With Ou Mountain Range in Relief
Signed by a Samurai
And Three Officials
Japan, Kaei 7 . Large manuscript watercoloured map to illustrate the village of Ashinazawa Tamayamababa and its environs (in present-day Morioka, Iwate Prefecture), showing lands used by samurai of the ruling Nanbu Clan for raising and breeding horses, also highlighting three mountains in relief by way of tipped-in folding cutouts. Place names and text is in Japanese. Signed in manuscript by a Samurai named Sakura Baba, as well as three other notable officials. Map measures approximately 135 x 82 cm. Some creasing, otherwise in very good condition, a very unique manuscript painted map from the feudal Morioka Domain.
The village shown is Ashinazawa Tamayamababa, situated within 30 km from Morioka, which was then the ****JAPANESE TEXT *** Morioka Domain (Morioka-han), a tozama feudal domain of Edo period, under the rule of the ****JAPANESE TEXT *** Nanbu Clan (Nanbu-shi) of samurai whose territory spanned most of northeastern Honshu in the Tohoku region. [Today, Morioka (Morioka-shi) is the capital city of Iwate Prefecture located in the Tohoku region of northern Japan. Ashinazawa is considered part of the Morioka district.]Ashinazawa Tamayamababa is also near, only 90 km, from Kakunodate (in present-day Akita Prefecture), also a former castle town and samurai stronghold. While Kakunodate Castle no longer remains, the town is famous for its samurai tradition and its hundreds of weeping cherry trees (shidarezakura). Apart from the loss of its castle, Kakunodate remains remarkably unchanged since its founding in 1620. The town was built with two distinct areas, the samurai district and the merchant district. Once home to 80 families, the samurai district still has some of the best examples of samurai architecture in all of Japan.Among the hills and near the village, some rather expansive horse-breeding fields are drawn on the map, presumably belonging to or at least managed by the Nanbu-shi samurai who signed the document. The horses would have been used by samurai warriors for military equestrianism, including bajutsu (a distinct form of martial art), for yabusame (mounted archery), and other practices of skilled battle on horse-back.Three mountains illustrated two-dimentionally, are all stratovolcanos forming part of the Ou Mountain range in the Tohoku region of northern Honshu. They appear to be illustrating Mount Iwate – the active volcano situated only 22 km from Ashinazawa, Mount Hachimantai – the highest peak in the Ou Mountains and only 46 km from Ashinazawa, and the active stratovolcano Akita-Komagatake located some 70 km from Ashinazawa.In red paint, several roadways are delineated, one of them reaching and following the summit line of one of the mountains. At the head of one of these roads, is a drawing of a cherry blossom trees, and an inscription which likely reads ‘sakura’, the term for of a group of cherry blossom trees, collectively.The flow of the Kakkonda and Shizukuishi rivers into the Kitakami is traced from the hills. In the distance, on the opposite side of the mountain ranges, a larger river is drawn, depicting the wider Tama River, which would eventually lead to Lake Tazawa.The Akita-Komagatake region is exceptionally lush, with several hundred species of alpine flora and would surely be an excellent place for horses to graze. Mount Hachimantai is especially characterized with hot springs, possibly being used as a source of warm water for cleaning or healing. In general, the vast region would be superb as a horse breeding ground. [Not far from Morioka, located in the midpoint between the inland and coastal areas of Iwate, is Tono, which today is famous or breeding horses for use in agriculture. Formerly, many agriculturalists were involved in horse breeding and even treated their horses with the same affection as family members, a tradition which survives to this day.]
Incidentally, this map is of interest to Korean Drama fans, as it is just north of the filming location of the popular South Korean espionage television drama series, “Iris”, starring Lee Byung-hun and Kim Tae-hee, near Lake Tazawa.
Mountains shown in relief:
Looking from the west side of the Ou mountains.Mountains shown in relief:
Region between Ashinazawa and the Ou mountains used for horsebreeding.North-South view:
Horsemanship was an important duty and respected skill of the samurai. There were two classes of Samurai, and only upper-class samurai were allowed horses, although the lower class samurai who could find a way to possess their own horse, did so, with the belief that every samurai should have the honour and the benefit. Being on horse-back aided in part to best perform archery, spearmanship, and swordsmanship in battle.The horses ridden by the samurai were mostly the sturdy Kisouma, native horses that resembled stocky ponies rather than modern-day thoroughbreds. They were stub faced, long haired, short legged, shaggy looking creatures, their backs averaging about 120 to 140cm in height. Samurai mounted their horses not from the left, like modern equestrians, but from the right side of their steeds. [Recent tests were conducted to compare the abilities of the short-legged, heavy-set, shaggy-haired native Kisouma, and the modern bred horse, and found that the pony-like Kisouma was faster and more agile than expected.]According to the records left by 16th century Portuguese missionary Luis Frois, the Japanese rode their horses to the battle, dismounted, and fought on foot. Frois had only seen samurai from the Kansai (western Japan) regions fight. It was true, the Kansai samurai dismounted their horses then continued to fight on foot, however the Kanto (East and North Japan) samurai did in fact, fight from horseback.Horse-mounted samurai often fought by charging their horses at their opponent, in some cases causing a collision that would unbalance or even injure the other’s steed. In many instances the horses were the first attacked in a charge rather than the mounted samurai, particularly when it came to a charge against a row of spear-wielding, bow, or matchlock armed troops. They would first shoot at or spear the horse, which would in turn bring down the warrior too. Horses were valuable to samurai warriors, and whenever possible in battle, they would be captured alive to enhance the stables of the victor.Various techniques were developed for fighting against other horse-mounted samurai. Tools included pole arms, swords, clubs, and even hand-to-hand methods. For sword fighting, offensive approaches included positioning oneself to the left side of one’s opponent. This was an obvious advantage when fighting on horseback, as it meant the average right-handed swordsman would be an easier kill, finding it more difficult to avoid blows. Other charges against horsemen would include spear jousting or grappling techniques almost akin to judo on horseback. In the early Edo period, the western samurai were not sure how exactly to fight against the horse-mounted eastern and northern samurai, giving the latter a psychological and military advantage. Often the latter would quickly approach the enemy and cut them down before any defensive or counter attack could be performed.Incidentally, there are only about 120 pure Kisouma remaining in Japan. The strong, sturdy animals were used by Japan’s military in the 1930’s and 1940’s, and many of the animals were left behind in Korea and China upon the end of the war.
Other close-up views showing village, horse-breeding grounds, roadways, rivers and text:Cherry blossom trees:In the image below, the tipped-in relief mountains are laid flat for storage:This is a large map measuring approximately 135 x 82 cm.
The Nanbu clan were confirmed as daimyo of Morioka Domain under the Edo-period Tokugawa shogunate, in July 1590 by way of an oath of fealty to Toyotomi Hideyoshi at the Siege of Odawara. However, Hideyoshi also recognised the independence of the Tsugaru clan, former Nanbu retainers, and their control over the three districts of Tsugaru Peninsula, but gave the Nanbu clan the additional districts of Hienuki and Waga as compensation. Nanbu Nobunao relocated his seat from Sannohe Castle to the more central location of Morioka, and began work on Morioka Castle and its surrounding castle town in 1592. The domain was in constant conflict with neighboring Hirosaki Domain, whose ruling Tsugaru clan were once Nanbu retainers. In 1821, only 33 years before the present map was painted, longstanding tensions between the Nanbu and Tsugaru erupted into the Soma Daisaku Incident – a foiled plot by Soma Daisaku, a former retainer of the Nanbu clan, to assassinate the Tsugaru lord.In this same year the 11th daimyo, Nanbu Toshimochi, died at the age of 13 before he could be formally received in audience by shogun Tokugawa Ienari. Fearing that this could be used by the shogunate as a cause for an attainder (forfeiture of land and civil rights), the domain leaders substituted a cousin of similar age and appearance to take his place. The Nanbu clan’s territories were also among those effected by the Tenpo famine of the mid-1830s. In 1840, a han school was established, and began promoting studies in rangaku (western science), especially western medicine. In spite of the clan conflicts and other major setbacks, the Nanbu clan retained its holdings for the entire Edo period, surviving until the Meiji Restoration.During the Boshin War of 1868-69, the Nanbu clan fought on the side of the Ouetsu Reppan Domei, supporting the Tokugawa regime. After Meiji Restoration, the Nanbu clan had much of its land confiscated, and in 1871, the heads of its branches were relieved of office. In the Meiji period, the former daimyo became part of the kazoku peerage, with Nanbu Toshiyuki receiving the title of hakushaku (Count). The main Nanbu line survives to the present day; Toshiaki Nanbu served as the chief priest of Yasukuni Shrine.
Mount Hachimantai is the highest peak of a group of stratovolcanos in the Ou mountains. This volcanic plateau straddles the border between the Iwate Prefecture and Akita Prefecture. The Hachimantai plateau is located approximately 18 kilometres northeast of Lake Tazawa, within the present-day borders of the city of Hachimantai, Iwate, and village of Kazuno, Akita.Mount Iwate, often referred to as the “Nanbu Fuji”, is also is a stratovolcano complex in the Ou Mountains of the western Iwate Prefecture, in the Tohoku region of northern Honshu. With an elevation of 2,038 metres, it is the highest in Iwate Prefecture.Mount Akita-Komagatake, an active stratovolcano located 10 km east of Tazawa Lake, near the border between Akita and Iwate prefectures, is the collective name for three peaks in the Ou mountain range in southern Akita Prefecture, comprising Mount Onamedake (the highest peak at 1,637 meters), Mount Odake and Mount Medake.
Bahrain and the Persian Gulf
With Rare Dustjacket
Title: Bahrain and the Persian Gulf.
Ipswich, England: East Anglian Magazine, 1952. First Edition.
Small octavo, original pale green cloth. Very good condition in the rare dustjacket. First and only edition of this scarce guidebook to the Persian Gulf, illustrated with 16 half-tone plates from photographs by the author and three maps.
This scarce guidebook was written shortly after the beginning of full-scale oil drilling in the region, and includes chapters on Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, the Trucial Coast (modern-day United Arab Emirates), and Muscat Oman, covering local history, society and culture, with a chapter on the pearl industry.
Tweedy writes that Doha is “practically untouched by the progressive hands of the West and the camels and donkeys outnumber the motor-cars how long this simplicity will last is hard to say, for the enormous increase in oil revenues must inevitably affect the lives of all” (39-40).